Tijdschrift voor de Geschiedenis van de Kartografie
Journal for the history of cartography in the Netherlands

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Inhoud 30e jaargang (2011)
Contents of volume 30 (2011)

no. 1     no. 2      no. 3     no. 4

Caert-Thresoor 30e jaargang 2011, nr. 1


Caert-Thresoor 30e jaargang 2011, nr. 2


Caert-Thresoor 30e jaargang 2011, nr. 3


Caert-Thresoor 30e jaargang 2011, nr. 4


Summaries

Jans Hoving & Jan Leendert Lokker
The atlases of the Hoeksche Waard and Goeree-Overflakkee from J.H. Kips published in 1835

[Caert-Thresoor 30 (2011) 1, pp. 1-8]

Trained as a surveyor, J.H. Kips started his working life in the service of the Dutch cadastre in 1806 and, in the course of his career, rose to become Surveyor-General in the province of Zuid-Holland, then of Utrecht and finally of the Netherlands. In this capacity he had access to, and use of, the 1:2500 cadastral maps of the Hoeksche Waard and of Goeree-Overflakkee which he reduced to the scale of 1:10.000. The two resulting atlases were both privately published in 1835 by his son J. Kips who owned a printing shop in The Hague. Kips saw the publication as an experiment to investigate the feasibility of producing a longer series of similar atlases, but must have refrained from doing so because of unfavourable circumstances - a possibility he already hinted at in his preface. In this preface he explained that there was a demand for accurate, fairly large scale, atlases; and he enumerated quite a few possibilities for using them. The set-up of the two atlases was similar: a title page, a preface, a table of contents, a general map scale of 1:50.000 and 12 (for Goeree-Overflakkee) or 18 (for de Hoeksche Waard) municipal maps at the scale of 1:10.000. As to colouring, there are 3 types: uncoloured; blue colouring of the estuaries; and as the second, but with coloured boundaries. A quarto-sized ‘Register’ of approx. 200 pp., in which were given the section numbers, use of the land and the acreage of every plot, was issued to complement each atlas. The two atlases are the earliest examples of mapping relatively small parts of a province for which cadastral maps were used so consistently. (back)

Peter H. Meurer
Musinus' wall-map of Europe (Antwerp, 1560)

[Caert-Thresoor 30 (2011) 1, pp. 9-16]

Gerard de Jode (1509/17-1591) had a substantial share in the rise of Antwerp as a map publishing centre in the second half of the 16th century. The wall-map with the earliest date from his publishing house is one of Europe in 6 sheets of 1560. The name of the author is given as Bartholomaeus Musinus. Biographical details on this man are completely lacking. A detailed study reveals that this map by Musinus follows closely the wall-map of Europe, first published in 1555, by the Cologne cartographer and instrument maker Caspar Vopelius (1511-1561). The map image has been turned 180 degrees (and is now orientated southwards instead of north), and the contents are slightly reworked after other models. A 1578 atlas map by De Jode was, in turn, copied from this Musinus map, again augmented from more recent sources. In all, these two maps are typical examples of the general juggling with models and sources in De Jode’ s work. An in-depth study of De Jode’s complex modus operandi would be an interesting theme for future research. (back)

Peter van de Krogt
Nova Arx Cortracensis and archduke Leopold: The dedication of Blaeu’s plan of the citadel of Kortrijk

[Caert-Thresoor 30 (2011) 1, pp. 17-19]

The dedication of the plan of the citadel of Kortrijk (Courtrai), built by the French in 1647, in Blaeu’s town atlases shows three states, and by covering the copperplate before printing, some variants. The first and second states differ in the decorative elements of the dedication cartouche. In the text Blaeu congratulates archduke Leopold of Austria with his capture of the citadel in 1648, later he altered the text into a more neutral form. By covering the plan’s dedication on the plate he could print it to enable the sale of both the plan and the atlas in France. (back)

Hans Kok
Quo vadis? The difference between the wind rose and compass rose

[Caert-Thresoor 30 (2011) 1, pp. 20-25]

The – it seems – everlasting confusion on the difference between compass roses and wind roses is explained by describing the prime reference of a number of commonly used directional systems. Transfer of one system to another is often either enforced, or hindered, by local navigational requirements. The main reference of wind directions, as used in the Mediterranean basin in the early days, had to change to a globally valid system of (magnetic) compass directions for long range navigation. The underlying reference defines whether a rose is to be qualified as wind rose or compass rose. A presentation of an hybrid system, whereby the directions refer to (magnetic) north already, but retain some of their ‘windy’ names of old, is not uncommon and lingers on until far into the eighteenth century with depictions by Homann and Seutter. The basic distinction between wind roses and compass roses may become lost, however, when the general public decides to disregard it. (back)

Martijn Storms
The map of Dutch Brazil by Georg Marcgraf

[Caert-Thresoor 30 (2011) 2, pp. 37-46]

In 2010 Marcgraf’s 400th birthday was commemorated. Georg Marcgraf (1610-1644) was born in Liebstadt and studied botany and astronomy at Leiden University. In the period 1638-1643 he was part of a scientific expedition under Johan Maurits count of Nassau, governor of Dutch Brazil in those years. In Recife he founded the first observatory in the New World. In 1643 he was sent to Angola where he died soon after his arrival. In the history of cartography Marcgraf is known because of one map that bears his name: a wall map of Dutch Brazil. That map is praised for its metrical accuracy, topographic detail and rich decorative images. It would long remain the most accurate map of the region. The Dutch mapping of Brazil and the compilation of the Marcgraf map (including its precise dating), especially in relation to an anonymous manuscript atlas in the Dutch National Archives, are subjects for further research. This research may answer the questions about the dating of the alterations to the copperplates and the relation between the four sheet maps (first published in the work of Barlaeus (1647) and the wall map. (back)

Walter van den Broecke
Ortelius’ Epitomes?

[Caert-Thresoor 30 (2011) 2, pp. 47-51]

Cartographic literature classifies the numerous Epitomes which appeared in the 16th and 17th centuries as works of Ortelius. This is correct in the sense that most Epitomes derived the greater amount of their information concerning maps and verso texts from Ortelius’ folio world atlas - the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. But Ortelius had no role in the choice of maps and texts; neither was he involved financially or emotionally. In the later Epitomes the resemblance with the Theatrum weakens and in the last five Italian editions, which hardly contained any maps and cannot be called atlases at all, any remaining resemblance has disappeared. Ortelius was tolerant of other mapmakers who exploited his Theatrum by reducing its size and price. (back)

Ester Verkaik & Elien Voerman
The Bisdom van Vliet – Le Fèvre de Montigny Cartographical Collection

[Caert-Thresoor 30 (2011) 2, pp. 52-59]

A surprising collection of maps and drawings which had been largely invisible for visitors to the Bisdom van Vliet Museum in the town of Haastrecht, stored as it was behind locked doors, came to light when all the Museum’s Collections were described and digitised from 2003 until 2008. As part of the project, the collection of rolled maps was researched closely and it was decided to look into the option of storing them elsewhere. As a result, the maps have been transferred to the Regional Archive for Central Holland in Gouda, because here the maps would be publicly accessible. Moreover, the vulnerable maps would be stored here under more favourable conditions. This article marks the loan from the Museum to the Regional Archive. (back)

Igor Wladimiroff
'Bloopers' in the Dutch cartography of Russia

[Caert-Thresoor 30 (2011) 3, pp. 69-77]

In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Dutch cartographers played a groundbreaking role in the mapping of Russia. Their primary motive was the search for trade routes to Southeast Asia. As there was no reliable information on the geography of the vast territory of Siberia they had to rely on the invalid hypotheses and few observations of Western scientists and travellers. Their cartographic constructions of the geographic reality were not without the inevitable ‘bloopers’. The article illustrates this with eight examples: the shape and position of Nova Zembla, a river from the Northern Ice Sea to the Caspian Sea, a spit of land between Siberia and Alaska, the goddess Zolotaja Baba, Witsen Island, the proportions of the sea of Azov and Black Sea, the shape of the Caspian Sea, and a canal between the Don and the Volga. (back)

Harald Fredriks & Peter van der Krogt
The Carte du Camp d'Utrecht from 1805

[Caert-Thresoor 30 (2011) 3, pp. 78-86]

The map collection of the University of Utrecht contains 45 different versions of the so called ‘Marmontkaart’ (the ‘Marmont Map’). What kind of map are we dealing with? Which other maps were made of General Marmont’s military encampment near Utrecht? This article leads us through the historical cartography with regard to the different maps of the Camp near Utrecht during the French domination of the Netherlands in the early 19th century. (back)

Hans Kloosterboer
The ever-changing patern of sand banks and shoals in Dutch channels - a tool for dating early charts?

[Caert-Thresoor 30 (2011) 3, pp. 87-96]

Strong tidal currents cause a continuous change of the sand banks and shoals in the Dutch channels of Marsdiep and Vlie, which used to connect the North Sea with the Zuiderzee and thereby with the ports of Amsterdam and other trading cities. By chronologically arranging appropriate chart fragments of these channels, taken from properly dated sea-atlases and pilot guides, an attempt is made to develop a tool which assists in dating charts that lack a printed date. However, the imaging of the channels does not always follow a linear course: parallel developments are also observed as well as partial adaptations to a changed situation, each depending on the publishing house. Comparison of the two series of chart fragments shows that renewal of the Vlie charts lagged behind the renewal of those of the Marsdiep, notably in the second half of the seventeenth century. Application of our proposed tool shows, for example, that small-scale charts of larger areas are often based on detailed maps of a much earlier date; the same applies to some foreign charts drawn after Dutch examples on a comparable scale. By contrast, the most recent 1586 edition of Waghenaer’s Spiegel der Zeevaerdt was used for The Mariners Mirrour, published in London in 1588. (back)

Frans Beekman & Ron Guleij
The dunes of the Netherlands in 1828: a recent cartographic find in the Dutch National Archives

[Caert-Thresoor 30 (2011) 4, pp. 109-117]

This article describes two recently found manuscript maps of the dunes of The Netherlands and France dating from the period 1827-1829.
Historical geographers have long been unaware of the existence of these important maps of the dunes area. Only quite attentive readers of the 1908 catalogue of the Library of the Ministry of Finance could have linked these maps to the records held at the National Archives at The Hague and of the Rijnland Water Board at Leiden. The report on the dunes area combined with the appendices, notably these elaborate and detailed manuscript maps, offer a stunning portrait of the entire Dutch coast at that time (Flanders, Zeeland, Holland) after the Napoleonic era.
The maps are suitable for further research and for exhibitions in The Netherlands, Belgium and France, and perhaps also for facsimile publications. Such exhibitions and publications would certainly have to include the underlying statistical data as well as the manuscript report in French and Dutch on the dunes. (back)

Marco van Egmond & Elger Heere
Treasure map or map treasure? A quest for the oldest map of the Netherlands

[Caert-Thresoor 30 (2011) 4, pp. 118-126]

On the verso of a copy of Dese corte cronikel (Utrecht, Hendrick I van Borculo, 1586), in the possession of the antiquarian book dealer Plantijn in Breda, is printed a woodcut map. It is by Hendrick I van Borculo?s father, the Utrecht-based publisher Herman van Borculo, from 1557. The map is oriented to the southeast and covers the region from Calais (France) to Trèves (or Trier, Germany) in the south and from Vlieland to Marburg (Germany) in the north. The map is a copy of one from 1526 of the Baltic Sea by the Antwerp-based publisher Jan van Hoirne. That map is considered as the oldest map of the Netherlands, of which only one incomplete exemplar is known. With this discovery, Van Hoirne’s complete map can largely be reconstructed. For such a reconstruction a completely different map is used that resembles the work of Van Hoirne: that of the Nuremberg engraver Matthias Zündt. It is likely the Van Hoirne map is part of a four-sheet wall map. (back)

Judith Geerts & Jean-Marieke Poot
The Atlas of The Netherlands and its mapped damage: formation of a restoration proposal

[Caert-Thresoor 30 (2011) 4, pp. 127-131]

The University of Amsterdam owns a unique nine-volume atlas with a broad variety of maps, all showing a specific part of The Netherlands. Altogether, the maps are a beautiful representation of Holland in the early 19th century.
The Atlas is judged to be in poor condition, and therefore a project has been started with the aim to restore and conserve it for future generations. Before restoration starts, a damage inventory has to be made and several considerations taken into account: the aim of the treatment, the object’s future role and its nature. The Atlas will be digitalized and its future physical access will be minimized as much as possible, therefore its treatment will be minimal. As to the object’s nature: the Atlas’s individual volumes form an ensemble and should be treated as such.
Damage is very diverse. First of all, the covers show damage varying from corners being deformed, to degraded leather on the hinges. The paper of the maps shows chemical damage, especially in parts where green copper acetatecontaining paint (verdegris) degrades the paper fibres. Another kind of damage found is caused by handling the books. Leaves have been folded in a wrong way, dirty fingers have left marks, and some maps are torn. Furthermore, every map has surface dust. This forms a risk because it attracts moisture, which again can induce chemical reactions such as copper acetateinfluenced paper degradation.
After completing the damage inventory it was found that the condition of the Atlas’s individual volumes wasn’t as bad as first thought. With all considerations in mind a proposed treatment was effected. The most important was to the covers: this included the re-fixing of loose, and strengthening of weak, parts. Treatment of the maps included cleaning, repairing tears as much as possible, and flattening accidental folds. (back)


Laatst bijgewerkt op 2012-01-21 door Gijs Boink