Tijdschrift voor de geschiedenis van de kartografie
About forty years ago, in 1961, the doctor's degree was conferred upon Cornelis Koeman for his dissertation Collections of Maps and Atlases in the Netherlands. Twenty years later - after having attained his professorship - he retired. Thus a good opportunity presents itself to draw attention to the founder of the world's first and only professorial chair in the history of cartography. Koeman is also well-known for his historical cartographical reference works, like the most famous Atlantes Neerlandici. (back)
War maps for 'London'
[Caert-Thresoor 21 (2002) 1, pp. 9-14]
In the occupied Netherlands the (resistance) Organization for public order ('Ordedienst') was one of the units with the objective of giving information to the allies.
One of the ways contacts were established between The Netherlands and 'London' was, next to radio, the sending of microfilms by couriers. These microfilms contained maps with relation to the situation of German defence systems, Staff-quarters, harbours, mine-fields (see map 346), folly airfields and so on. The microfilms were made by the underground photography department of the Municipal Gas and Electricity works of Amsterdam.
The couriers brought the films hidden in one's sock or in a lady's belt to Switzerland and later (after September 1944) to the liberated southern part of The Netherlands. Over 1.000 maps and microfilms and roughly 4.000 photo-types were made in the years 1943-1945. (back)
Two unknown maps of Bergen op Zoom from 1586/1587
[Caert-Thresoor 21 (2002) 1, pp. 15-19]
The medieval town of Bergen of Zoom lost its position as a key merchant city when shipping from Antwerp to the North Sea increasingly took the route through the Scheldt estuary by the Westerschelde. Instead Bergen op Zoom became a key city in the warfare between the Spanish and the revolting Netherlands because of its strategic position towards Antwerp and the province of Zeeland.
Especially the Estates of Zeeland were keen to have the city well fortified and they instructed one of the most famous Dutch military engineers, Johan van Rijswijck, to report about the fortifications. He wrote an extensive treatment (1586) about the merits of the (possible) fortifications of Bergen op Zoom joint with two maps of which one still remains in the Manuscript Department of the British Library.
The other map is a situation sketch of Bergen op Zoom designed by a captain Wolff from the Bergen op Zoom garrison to inform his superiors in England. It depicts the elements of the Van Rijswijk proposals that had already been realized in 1587, and can be found in the State Papers of Holland in the Public Record Office in London. Both maps were so far unknown in the Netherlands and fill in a gap in the cartographic history of Bergen op Zoom. (back)
A toponymic tool for early atlases
[Caert-Thresoor 21 (2002) 1, pp. 21-25]
Up to 1540 printed versions of Ptolemy's Geographia contained lists of classical names together with their co-ordinates. In 1540 Münster added modern name versions to these lists, per country, thus creating a concordance between classical and modern names. Within the short timespan 1570-1584 both the principles of having the classical and modern name lists integrated into a general index (Ortelius), of using locally official names instead of exonyms (Mercator) and of having concordances between the various modern name versions in the various languages in use (thus providing lists of exonyms) were established. (back)
Peter H. Meurer
On the trace of the map of the XVII Provinces by Jan van Hoirne
[Caert-Thresoor 21 (2002) 2, pp. 33-40]
The map Cott.Aug.I.ii.63 in the Department of Manuscripts of the British Library, London was catalogued 150 years ago as a 16th century chart showing the area between Calais, Cologne and the Ems mouth. A new study has given a new interpretation. Two dotted lines indicate the routes from Hambach Castle, Düsseldorf and Cleve (the residences of the Duchy of Jülich-Cleve-Berg) to Calais, at that time the English harbour on the continent. The map may have been drawn by an English author R.W. (Reynold Wolfe?) on the occasion of the journey of Anna von Cleves in autumn 1539 to London, to marry Henry VIII.
Topographical analysis gives evidence to assume that this London manuscript map was based upon the basis of the Germania Inferioris tabula, printed in Antwerp by Jan van Hoirne in the 1520s. This oldest special map of the Netherlands was hitherto known only from its mention in Ortelius's catalogue of mapmakers (1570ff.); an original copy still has not come to light. (back)
Peter van der Krogt & Ferjan Ormeling
A manual for the use of maps with a 'legend-map' from 1554
[Caert-Thresoor 21 (2002) 2, pp. 41-46]
A register with title deeds of the Oude Gasthuis (Old Hospital) Delft was made in 1554/55 by the notary and surveyor Pieter Resen (II or III, for neither of whom biographical data are known). In this register Pieter Resen added twelve maps of parcels of land. Since at that time maps were not very common, on the first leaves of the register he wrote a manual how to use the maps and an explanation of the symbols and colours used. The latter is accompanied by a 'legend-map': a map of a fictitious piece of land where, by means of characters, the symbols and colours used are explained. (back)
F.J. Ormeling sr.
Jan van Roon (1872-1930), a versatile and critical topographer
[Caert-Thresoor 21 (2002) 2, pp. 47-49]
Jan van Roon was employed by the Topographische Inrichting (topographical survey) of the former Dutch East Indies. In this service, dominated by the military, he was an advocate for the use of topographical maps for civil purposes. Also he worked on geodetic levelling and the accuracy of the maps of the residencies. After his return to the Netherlands in the 1920s he sat on the Board of the Royal Geographical Society (KNAG) and was involved in the improvement of the topographical mapping of the Netherlands. Because he persisted in using cadastral maps as the basis for topographical mapping, and rejected aerial survey, his role was soon obsolescent. (back)
Guido van der Molen
Internet and the history of cartography: looking at pics or useful source?
[Caert-Thresoor 21 (2002) 3, pp. 66-71]
[Full text (Dutch)]
Nowadays we can find more and more cartographic websites on the internet. The question is whether these websites are useful to use. Furthermore, many search engines cannot find the best sites. The quality of the webpages, in case of historic cartography, is in overall good enough to use. Especially the websites of universities and libraries are very informative. We can find many images, but also descriptions and catalogues. The internet portals of Oddens and Campbell make it so that cartographic sites are available to everyone. (back)
Marco van Egmond
Internet portals for the history of cartography
[Caert-Thresoor 21 (2002) 3, pp. 73-77]
[Full text (Dutch)]
The Web nowadays contains a huge mass of information on all sort of topics. Concerning the history of cartography map-loving people can also find a wide range of material. It is however difficult to find the required historic-cartographical information in a relative short time. Fortunately there are so-called 'internet portals' or 'gateways': websites offering an overview on the virtual history of cartography by means of rubricated and sometimes annotated links. In this article two of such internet portals are considered: Oddens' Bookmarks and Map History/History of Cartography : THE Gateway to the Subject. These websites are explored by Roelof Oddens and Tony Campbell respectively. With the help of their sites people, who are looking for particular maps or other historical-cartographical topics, can quite easily find the information they want. Both portals are complementary to each other. To maintain the portals for the nearby future it is necessary to institutionalize and formalize the implementation. (back)
The accessibility of old maps on internet
[Caert-Thresoor 21 (2002) 3, pp. 79-83]
[Full text (Dutch)]
Old maps are very sensible in many cases. Because the material is often unique and the information value is high, it is very important to save these sources for the future. This can be done with the release of facsimiles. The last years however, there is a trend to digitalize the old maps. To reach as most people as possible, the digital files can be disclosed the best on internet. Another possibility is to put the maps on cd-rom's. Various archives and libraries have put, parts of, their map collections on internet already. One of the most beautiful examples in this case is the site of the Library of Congress, the national library of the United States. They use MrSID software, which seems to be the most advanced technology for this purpose. The digitalization of old maps gives the possibility for (Internet) applications with old maps. A possible application is to link background information at locations on the old map, by making it a clickable map. Geocoding of old maps can also be done, which give the possibility to make accuracy analyses. Geocoding give also the facilities to make overlays between the old map and other maps. These applications give new challenges to the discipline of historical cartography. (back)
Les délices des Pays-Bas
[Caert-Thresoor 21 (2002) 4, pp. 97-104]
In 1648 the Netherlands were officially divided by the Treaty of Munster into the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands under the government of the States General and the Southern Netherlands under the authority of the Spanish king. In spite of this fact the cartographers pretented the Netherlands still consisted of seventeen provinces. In the book Les délices des Pays-Bas by the Brussels historian John Christijn the seventeen provinces occurred in the sequence Brabant, Limburg, Malines, Gelderland, Namur, Arras, Flanders, Hainault, Cambrai, Luxembourg, Liége, Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Friesland, Overijssel and Groningen.
The first edition of this book was published in 1697 by François Foppens in Brussel and contained 28 pictures of which the most were engraved by James Harrewijn (figure 1). Already in 1700 a second edition appeared with on the whole the same pictures. The third edition of 1711 was more extensive with three volumes and 77 pictures (figure 2). On the greatest part of the plans unfortunately a street pattern is drawn which is a product of pure phantasy (figure 3). The following editions were published in 1720, 1743 and 1769 and contained about 140 pictures of which the greatest part had been newly engraved, including 59 plans and 74 pictures of churches and special buildings (figures 4 and 5). These are clearly the most beautiful editions, although many pictures did not correspond with the reality. On account of the wear of the copper-plates the seventh and eighth editions in 1785 (in Dutch) and in 1786 (in French) contained 160 totally new pictures, most of them corresponding with those of the preceding editions, but in a more crude style (figures 6 and 7). (back)
Lowie Brink & Lucy Holl
Landmark or failure? A risky experiment of publisher Ten Brink in educational cartography
[Caert-Thresoor 21 (2002) 4, pp. 105-108]
In 1933 publisher H. ten Brink in Arnhem introduced a new method in educational cartography: Modern Geography. It contained very stylized classroom wall maps, in which only straight lines were used and all bends were eliminated. While this radically new method was received favourably by reviewers, it turned out to be not a commercial success. (back)
The French maps of northern Netherlands (1811-1813)
[Caert-Thresoor 21 (2002) 4, pp. 109-117]
Around two hundred years ago French militairy surveyors have mapped a large part of the province of Drenthe and the northern coast of the Netherlands. The former Republic of the United Netherlands had at that time been annexed by France and formed part of Napoleons empire. The maps of Drenthe were required in order to complete Krayenhoff's map of the Netherlands. Fear of a possible English invasion led to the mapping of the northern coast. The forty maps produced, all at a scale of 1:20.000, form part of the collection of the 'Service Historique de l'Armee de Terre' in Vincennes, France. An atlas, published in 2001 by the Historical Society of Drenthe, now makes them available to the public in our country. (back)