Tijdschrift voor de Geschiedenis van de Kartografie
Journal for the history of cartography in the Netherlands

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Inhoud 38e jaargang (2019)
Contents of volume 38 (2019)

no. 1     no. 2      no. 3     no. 4

Caert-Thresoor 38e jaargang 2019, nr. 1

Caert-Thresoor 38e jaargang 2019, nr. 2

Bilingual ICHC Special (in Dutch and English)


Anton Wegman
Ships and shipping in three maps of Amsterdam from 1544, 1597 and 1625

[Caert-Thresoor 38 (2019) 1, pp. 3-8]

Pictures of ships in printed maps were common from around 1500 until about 1750. My research as a fellow of the Amsterdam Maritime Museum concentrated on the question of how realistic were these depictions. Using all kinds of resourses, the outcome of the research made clear that these maps and the ships on them were very correct in the depiction of daily maritime activity in and around the town. I also discovered some new interesting facts not hitherto described. Three maps of Amsterdam in the Maritime Museum's collection show not only the development in map-making, but also the growth of the maritime industry of the town. On all three maps north is below. The oldest is from 1544 by Cornelis Anthonisz. in the crude technique of a woodcut. It shows the mediaeval town, with stone walls and unstructured anchoring on the IJ in the foreground. We also notice ship building and other maritime industries like rope-making outside the defensive town walls. The map that Pieter Bast etched in 1597 makes clear that Amsterdam was rapidly expanding. An up-to-date defence is realised with earth works and fortifications, which also incorporate the maritime industries. All inland ships have lee boards, which was a major improvement, and the level of organisation on the waterfront is much higher. New wharves are made on artificial islands to the east. Balthasar Florisz. van Berckenrode's large etched map from 1625 is a milestone in map-making. The level of detail is unmatched; his depiction of ships is very realistic. The busy shipping on the IJ is almost incomprehensible. New islands were made on the west side of the waterfront and they are under development. Ship wharves, store houses and water and trade-related industries can grow there. All three maps make clear that Amsterdam was a maritime city. Waterways reached deep into the city and ships, large and small, were everywhere. My research proves that these maps contain a lot of reliable information about the maritime history of Amsterdam during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. (back)

Jan Trachet
Marvelous marginality. A new analysis of the 16th-century landscape on Pieter Pourbus' painted map of the Liberty of Bruges

[Caert-Thresoor 38 (2019) 1, pp. 9-13]

During the Middle Ages the metropolis of Bruges thrived through its oversea trade. A large tidal inlet – called Zwin – provided a navigable passage from the North Sea, through the wetlands, to the city's heart. The Eighty Years War (1568-1648) transformed the Zwin area from an axis of trade into a front line of war. Of course, this had a profound impact on the environment. At the start of this sudden landscape transformation, painter-carto-grapher Pieter Pourbus portrayed the countryside of Bruges with a unique level of detail, accuracy and scale. Although this map is often used as an illustration, it has remained incomprehensibly understudied. In general, studies of historical maps have mainly focused on the iconography of city maps on the one hand, or on the geometric accuracy of relatively recent mapped landscapes on the other. Moreover, recent research has shown that the current landscape-historical narratives of this part of the North Sea area are severely outdated. In order to fill these gaps and study this unique landscape through this peculiar painting, we will merge newly developed digital techniques from art history and geography, and complement this with a renewed archaeological and historical survey of the region. By unlocking the map's details we will make an invisible landscape reappear, and unveil the historical, archaeological and environmental records of this remarkable manmade landscape. (back)

Martijn Storms
Secrecy with the VOC? The double interests from Blaeu and Van Keulen

[Caert-Thresoor 38 (2019) 1, pp. 14-25]

The Dutch East India Company (VOC) produced its own maps. In the course of its long existence (1602-1799) the VOC appointed official mapmakers to lead its map chamber in the East India House in Amsterdam. For two periods, the office of VOC mapmaker was in the hands of two well-known map publishing families: the Blaeus (1633-1705) and the Van Keulens (1743-1799). The VOC mapmakers had to swear secrecy, but it is open to question to what extent VOC cartography was considered confidential. How did the Blaeu and Van Keulen families reconcile the role of official VOC mapmakers with their activities as commercial publishers? Was there a conflict of interest between their commercial activities and their commitment to the VOC? Evidently, the commercial map printing practice of the Blaeus was limited by the restrictions imposed by the VOC. However, the office of VOC mapmaker was very lucrative and apparently outweighed the publicity restrictions. Contemporary Amsterdam publishers not bound to the VOC, such as Johannes Janssonius, were less constrained in printing maps of VOC territories and included more detailed charts of Asian waters in their atlases. The VOC policy only changed when the Van Keulens were in charge of VOC's Amsterdam map chamber. In the first half of the eighteenth century English and French pilot guides of Asian waters began to be published. At that point no navigational information remained to be kept secret any longer. (back)

Bram Vannieuwenhuyze
Some new ideas about the genesis of Jacob van Deventer's town plans

[Caert-Thresoor 38 (2019) 2, pp. 4-13]

In the mid-sixteenth century Jacob van Deventer (c.1500-1575) produced plans of at least 226 towns in the Low Countries, which must have been a 'unique achievement' according to the map historian Van 't Hoff. The publication of the Stedenatlas Jacob van Deventer ('Jacob van Deventer's Town Atlas') last year, in which all plans were published together for the first time, offered the opportunity to gather, evaluate and expand the knowledge about Van Deventer's life and work. This article summarizes some of the new ideas about the context in which these town plans were realized. (back)

Gijs Boink
The first state of Amstelodamum, Celebre Emporium Forma Plana by Claes Jansz. Visscher

[Caert-Thresoor 38 (2019) 2, pp. 14-31]

Between 2014 and 2018 the Dutch National Archives performed a complete stack control for its cartographic holdings. One of the finds turned out to be special, as it was the only known complete version of the first state of Claes Jansz. Visscher’s Amstelodamum, Celebre Emporium Forma Plana, the Amsterdam map of which up until then only one incomplete copy was known. In this article the author gives a detailed description of this map, discusses its provenance and attempts to ameliorate the dating of the first state of the map. (back)

Paul van den Brink & John Steegh
The reclamation and layout of the Haarlemmermeer before and after 1852

[Caert-Thresoor 38 (2019) 2, pp. 32-47]

We can divide the history of the cartography of the Haarlemmermeer in two periods: until 1852, the year in which the huge inland lake in the centre of Holland was embanked and drained, and the period that followed in which the polder was "developed". When we have an overall view of the literature of the field, it becomes clear that the interest of historians of cartography has been focused almost entirely on the first period. Apart from the available bibliographical sources, one can equally fall back on a historiographical tradition in which the institutional frameworks were reconstructed that made dike and land reclamation possible. This historiographical tradition also exists for the period after the reclamation phase – perhaps even more – but historical-cartographic research has hitherto only been sporadic. Unlike the extensive and spectacular water management interventions that characterize the Dutch landscape up to the mideighteenth century, the cartographic image is lacking for the (re)design of the Dutch landscape in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Interventions that, according to several historians, were the harbinger of a new spatial dynamic that took place in the Netherlands in the last two centuries. From this perspective, in this article we examine how the institutional, water management and spatial interventions that integrated the "new land" in the Dutch landscape after 1852 were visualized with the assistance of topographical and thematical mapping. (back)

Petra Dreiskämper
AdamLink. Connecting historical collections of Amsterdam

[Caert-Thresoor 38 (2019) 2, pp. 48-54]

A lot of research about the urban history of Amsterdam has to deal with the buildings and streets of an ever expanding city. Correctly identifying where what was can be a real problem, and requires intimate historical geographical knowledge. In identifying a location, visual clues like drawings, paintings and photographs of the city might help, but they then need to be connected to one and the same historical geographical entity. Wouldn't it be wonderful to get building plans from archival records, together with paintings, photographs and books from other collections, simply because they were linked to the – correctly identified – Amsterdam City Hall? (back)

Laatst bijgewerkt op 2019-07-01