Tijdschrift voor de Geschiedenis van de Kartografie
Journal for the history of cartography in the Netherlands

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Inhoud 37e jaargang (2018)
Contents of volume 37 (2018)

no. 1     no. 2      no. 3     no. 4

Caert-Thresoor 37e jaargang 2018, nr. 1

Caert-Thresoor 37e jaargang 2018, nr. 2

Caert-Thresoor 37e jaargang 2018, nr. 3

Caert-Thresoor 37e jaargang 2018, nr. 4


Josse Pietersma
Wild and confused. The story behind Van Borsele's map of the Dutch coast

[Caert-Thresoor 37 (2018) 1, pp. 3-10]

The map that lurks behind shelfmark CBM 101 is the most outrageous map in the collection of the Dutch National Archives. It was made in 1753 by an illiterate inventor called Jacob van Borsele. For an unknown period of time the map remained unnoticed in an undocumented collection, the so-called 'Collectie Bondam'. The rediscovery of the map happened during a now almost finished stack control operation which the National Archives started in 2014.
In 1738 Jacob van Borsele successfully pursued funding by the Staten van Holland towards one of his inventions: a revolutionary new kind of dredger. Unfortunately, the inventor's impulsive and unruly character made himself completely impossible with the individuals and authorities that had to oversee the project. Therefore, after an initial test with disappointing results, the Staten van Holland decided to discontinue the project.
Jacob van Borsele, however, steadfastly believed in his inventions. In January 1753, as an old and needy man, he again tried to sell his 'genius plans' to the Staten van Holland. His poor state and desperation failed to convince the authorities. The coloured map is a crude and unorthodox depiction of the Dutch coast, from Goeree to just above Katwijk; a letter and explanatory notes are attached. His letter claims to be able to solve all the hydraulic engineering problems of the Dutch Republic. The invented machines he planned to use are also depicted. After the experience of 1738 it almost goes without saying that the authorities were no longer interested in any more of Van Borsele's plans. Neither map nor accompanying letter is even mentioned in any of the archives of the Staten van Holland. (back)

Hans Ferwerda
Collecting nautical charts; more than just navigation data. Miscellaneous finds in a nautical charts collection

[Caert-Thresoor 37 (2018) 1, pp. 11-20]

In earlier contributions the author described various aspects of older charts, such as topography, use of colour, depiction of the seabed and the addition of attractive coastal views. The present article deals with details or themes which one would not expect, or which are seldom seen, on standard nautical charts. The article subdivides into:
the chart as a source for studies (like changes in a sediment, or in preparation for building infrastructure); the importance of the low-water line to determine the limits of maritime zones under the rules of UNCLOS; some examples of nautical-technical specialities (like the variety in level of Chart Datum); remarkable details (like certain names for example, which evoke curiosity, some errors, or a Captain who had palm trees and vegetables planted on Pacific Islands, 'for the sake of castaways').
A final, long 'chapter' is on descriptions or notes resulting from expeditions. Remarkable descriptions were found on charts of Socotra, and of the Antarctic and Arctic seas. The latter, especially after careful study of two in the Canadian Arctic, turn out to show many traces of an unparalleled and amazing history of countless expeditions that involved wintering in Arctic waters, of which the author was unaware. Expeditions not only to find a North West passage, but (after 1848) also induced by the search for Sir John Franklin, who vanished in the ice with two vessels and all crews.
This article does not attempt to give the full story, but focuses on these unusual details only in the charts which happen to be in the author's collection. The aim remains to show the reader that a chart may contain unexpected elements in addition to its navigation information. (back)

Paul de Win & François van der Jeught
A map of Brabant for Emperor Charles V

[Caert-Thresoor 37 (2018) 1, pp. 21-23]

Due to the finding of a payment record from February 1539, in a register of the Chamber of Accounts kept in the State Archives in Brussels, it appears that Jacob van Deventer received the assignment of the Council of Finances to deliver personally to the Emperor in Gent a map of the duchy of Brabant. This adds a previously unknown copy to the list of regional maps of Brabant, Holland, Gelderland, Friesland and Zeeland. Moreover, it appears that Van Deventer was occupying the office of imperial geographer before February 23rd, 1540. On the basis of a tax cohier of Mechelen from 1544 and additional genealogical data about his neighbour, it became clear that Jacob van Deventer lived in Mechelen near the bridge over the Heergracht in the Kerkhofstraat, nowadays the Goswin de Stassartstraat. (back)

Clemens Deimann
Research into the origins of decontextualized maps in the collection of the National Archives

[Caert-Thresoor 37 (2018) 1, pp. 24-33]

The roughly 4000 maps of the Leupe and Leupe Supplement Collections (foreign maps) have lost almost all relation with the textual sources from whence they came. The maps were removed from the received letters and papers which the Dutch United East India Company (VOC), the Society of Surinam and other colonial institutions sent to the Dutch Republic. This removal causes much loss of the maps’ context, as well as creating a similar loss, for the textual sources, in content.
In the summer of 2017 the author interned at the National Archives of the Netherlands to partially remedy this situation. In this article, with some examples, the author summarizes the situation beforehand and the problems it caused; the methods used to retrace the connections between the maps and their textual origins; as well as some of the results of the research and the ways in which the National Archives hopes to convey this new information to researchers and the wider public. (back)

Lodewijk Wagenaar
Dutch forts on Sri Lanka. The military occupation by the VOC of the coastal area of Sri Lanka, 1638-1796

[Caert-Thresoor 37 (2018) 2, pp. 48-56]

This article dwells on the history of the Dutch forts as instruments of deterrence to European competitors and as tools of the colonial administration by the Dutch East India Company, or VOC for short. The VOC kept and modernized the fortresses it took from the Portuguese during the war that lasted from 1638 to 1658. The astonishing collection of military maps and plans drawn by engineers and surveyors in VOC service shows clearly fortress development in the colononial and international context. (back)

Elri Liebenberg
The Paskaart van't Zuydelykste Gedeelte van Africa by Johannes van Keulen II

[Caert-Thresoor 37 (2018) 2, pp. 57-70]

This decorative, though informative, Paskaart van't zuydelykste gedeelte van Africa by Johannes van Keulen II is virtually unkown in South Africa where none of the country's public or private map collections possesses an exemplar. Being an interesting combination of a marine chart and a topographic map, this paskaart was never part of either the Zee-Atlas or the Zee-Fakkel – the two marine atlases which originated with Johannes van Keulen I, and afterwards regularly updated and expanded by his son Gerard and grandson Johannes II. Instead, Johannes van Keulen II compiled this map between 1726 and 1743, presumably for a non-VOC customer to provide additional information on the sea routes between the Cape of Good Hope and Japan. Conspicuous are the unusual shapes of the Cape Peninsula and Saldanha Bay which differ entirely from how they are represented on older maps such as those of Van Weede (1654), Vingboons (1665) and Loots (c.1700). The shapes of both Saldanha Bay and the Peninsula – with its heavily serrated eastern coastline – seem to have been derived from a 1710 manuscript map by Gerard van Keulen who, in turn, copied the Peninsula's shape from a 1679 map forwarded by Governor Simon van der Stel to the Lords XVII in Amsterdam after conducting a hydrographic survey of Hout Bay and False Bay. The presence of an anonymous chart in the Library of the University of Stellenbosch raises the possibility of an unknown prototype as the representation of Saldanha Bay: it is identical to that on Gerard van Keulen's chart. (back)

Erik Walsmit
Siebe Bouma and his Museumdorp op het Kooizand in Enkhuizen. A plan for a new open-air museum

[Caert-Thresoor 37 (2018) 2, pp. 71-80]

Just before and after 1932, the year when the Zuiderzee was closed by the Afsluitdijk, initiatives emerged to preserve the disappearing Zuiderzee culture. The Zuiderzee Visscherij Exhibition in 1930 was the first example of this. The open-air exhibition in Enkhuizen consisted of imitation houses from the various Zuiderzee municipalities. Another initiative arose after Siebe Bouma took office in 1942 as director of the Netherlands Open Air Museum in Arnhem. Soon he began to develop plans for a new Zuiderzee Museum, having his own ideas about how an open-air museum should look. The buildings should be displayed in their own context, placed in a landscape that resembled the original environment as much as possible. Until then, a more park-like arrangement of open-air museums was customary. Bouma's plan was never executed because finding a suitable location took too long. The open-air Zuiderzee Museum was finally opened in 1983 after a plan by Nico Heyligenberg. This article discusses Bouma's plan, the Museumdorp op het Kooizand. (back)

Dirk Imhof
The folly of human wisdom: Abraham Ortelius’ contribution in the Album amicorum of Joannes Gevartius

[Caert-Thresoor 37 (2018) 2, pp. 81-84]

The Antwerp cartographer Abraham Ortelius’ Album amicorum is justifiably renowned. Comprising contributions from artists and scientists from all over Europe, it is a unique source for our knowledge of the republic of letters of the 16th century. However, alba amicorum in which Ortelius wrote a commemorative text are exceptionally rare. In 2017 the Antwerp Plantin-Moretus Museum was able to purchase one such album, namely that belonging to Joannes Gevartius, secretary of the city of Turnhout and priest at the Antwerp Cathedral. Herein Ortelius illustrates the relativity of human knowledge with a small, attractive drawing of a snake. It is an interesting and valuable addition to our understanding of the world of Ortelius. (back)

Ferjan Ormeling
Dutch names worldwide: the naming behaviour of Dutch mariners in the seventeenth century

[Caert-Thresoor 37 (2018) 3, pp. 97-110]

In 1942 Boudewijn Damsteegt defended a thesis on the naming behaviour of Dutch sailors in North- and West-European waters, as reflected on Dutch charts of the area, and the current study tries to provide a global extension of his work. After a description of the sources used and of the options open to the sailors (copying foreign names, adapting them to the Dutch language, translating them or devising new names) this study focuses on the new names as rendered on Dutch charts worldwide. These mainly consist of descriptive and commemorative names. The former refer to names given after conspicuous plant or animal ('flora and fauna') species, characteristic of the new environments, the relative locations and sizes of the named objects, or the circumstances under which they were reached. Other descriptive aspects could be the events witnessed on the objects or their specific form, in reality or on the map: the so-called 'Vogelkop' or 'Bird's Head' peninsula of New Guinea, for example, could only be thus named after it had been mapped for an overview of the feature. As opposed to the descriptive names that were coined in situ, the commemorative names were brought from home by the sailors and bestowed by them on – in their opinion – fitting features. To this category belong names given after sponsors of the maritime operations, patrons back home or close by (such as the governors-general of the Dutch East Indies), explorers, their ships, or the towns in the Netherlands from which they hailed. Many examples of the latter - so-called nostalgia archipelagos (groups of uninhabited small islands named after towns in the metropolis) - are spread over South and East Asia. The paper ends with a call for volunteers to inventorise these seventeenth century Dutch names worldwide. (back)

Jan van den Broek
Measuring and calculating. How in 1615 the Sems Line was drawn

[Caert-Thresoor 37 (2018) 3, pp. 111-117]

In 1615 Drost en Gedeputeerden van Drenthe ordered a boundary to be drawn in the moorlands between Drenthe and Westerwolde, the southeastern tip of the Province of Groningen. The surveyors Johan Sems and Jan de la Haeij had to draw up a line between de hamlet of Wolfsbarge in the north and Huis ter Haar near Ter Apel in the south, the distance between which prevents one of them being visible from the other. Despite much speculation over how they managed to draw this 34 kilometers-long straight line, no fully persuasive explanation has yet surfaced. Using the text that accompanied the surveyors' drawings, Jan van den Broek proposes a new hypothesis. He argues that, starting from the 13th-century northeastern point of Drenthe, the surveyors in fact drew a 'test line' in a direction which they assumed would bring them in the vicinity of Huis ter Haar; using this 'text line', a second auxiliary line and triangulation, they drew up a new borderline - which would go down in history as the Semslinie. (back)

Marc Hameleers
The Kaarte vande Polders der Eemlandtsche Leege Landen etc. by Dirk Brekensz. van Groenouw (1666-1760)

[Caert-Thresoor 37 (2018) 3, pp. 118-124]

In 1666 a map of the Eemlandsche Leege (= low-lying) Landen was published. It was made by surveyor Dirk Brekensz. Groenouw at the request of the polder board. Six states appeared. They were printed in 1666, 1710, 1724-1725, 1740, 1755 and 1760. When the map was available a notification for the inhabitants was printed. It stated that if they did not agree with the measurement results, they could appeal. If, after re-measurement, the appeal was declared well-founded, the dike and heemraad board paid the costs. If the appeal was unfounded, then the first measurement by Groenouw was taken as correct and the person requesting re-measurement paid. The first to the fifth states of the map show the names and coats of arms of the members of the polderboard. When the sixth state appeared, the copper plate had suffered so much that it was decided no longer to engrave the coats of arms and names. From now on new names and coats of arms were drawn in manuscript, then coloured. In the almost 170 years when the map was used only these features were changed. The names made it possible to determine the publication dates of the six states. After all, it is unlikely that in all those years there were no changes in the landscape that could have justified changes in the map image. In 1833 a complete new map of the same region was printed. It was made by cadastral surveyor H.L. Woudsma. (back)

Frans Scholten
Field sets, boxed maps, penny maps, manoeuvre maps and maps for war games: variations on the theme of the topographical and military map of the Netherlands

[Caert-Thresoor 37 (2018) 4, pp. 137-148]

The topographical and military map of the Netherlands (TMK), realised during the period 1846-1864, was the first detailed and reliable map of the whole country, constructed on a scale of 1:50.000. It served as a starting-point for several other maps, all printed by means of lithography. A first category concerns those that retained the TMK's content and scale, but were printed on cheaper or thinner paper. The use of low-quality paper combined with with special printing techniques enabled the production of a map that, by its low price, could be distributed widely within the army. Printing on Japanese and other kinds of light paper made it possible to bring sets of the maps together in small, handy packets and, from 1880, to store them in iron boxes which could easily be used in the field. Another adaptation was the application of colour printing from 1885. This made the maps, containing abundant information in black and white, more legible. From 1876 the TMK also served as basis for special military manoeuvres mapping. For that purpose the relevant manoeuvre areas were updated through special reconnaissances. A last and very special use of the TMK was the scaling up of selected areas with the help of photographic techniques to make the map suited to wargaming. Imitating the original German 'Kriegsspielkarten', these maps were initially on the 1:8.000 scale; later this was changed to 1:2.500 and 1:10.000. (back)

Ilja Mostert
Cornelis Goliath (1617-1660): life and work of world famous mapmaker in Zeeland and South America

[Caert-Thresoor 37 (2018) 4, pp. 149-1159]

Cornelis Bastiaensz Goliath played an important role as cartographer and governor in the Dutch colonies in Southern America. Until now only partial studies to specific aspects of his life had been conducted. In this study a complete overview of his life is described. Goliath had a life full of travel: born in Schiedam (Holland) he works as a mapmaker for the Dutch West India Company between 1634 and 1646. There he surveys almost all of Dutch Brazil, including a map of Olinda, Mauritsstad and Recife which was published in 1648 by Claes Jansz Visscher. After his time in Brazil Goliath settles in Oost-Kapelle in Zeeland. After stabbing an attacker in 1656 he has to flee to the city of Middelburg. There he draws a map of the town that was later published and became very well known in Zeeland. Goliath crosses the Atlantic Ocean one last time. At the River Pomeroon he establishes a new colony, Nova Zeelandia, which is situated in current Guyana. In 1660 Cornelis Goliath dies. Details of his travels show a life as seen in a movie: kidnapping, slavery, murder and other misfortune are no exception. Examining his work Goliath proves to be a talented and versatile cartographer. (back)

Hans Kok
A world map with the compass variations of Sir Edmund Halley by Reinier and Josua Ottens

[Caert-Thresoor 37 (2018) 4, pp. 160-164]

Sir Edmond Halley is not only famous for his comet but also for his exploration trip with the vessel 'Paramore', resulting in a world chart with compass variations, presented as isogonal lines. Its eventual publication in 1701 was followed by a similar chart, published by Pieter Mortier in 1703 in Amsterdam, with a fourth state published by Reinier and Josua Ottens c. 1726-1730. For the Pacific Ocean no isogonals are given, as insufficient observations were available. A later state of the chart was also included in the Atlas van Zeevaart en Koophandel door de Geheele Wereldt, published by Ottens in 1745, better known as the 'Renard atlas'. The fourth state of the chart is also instructive for depicting the best routes from Holland to the Far East and India/Ceylon, showing the outbound and inbound sea tracks depending on the monsoon and trade winds, basically visualising the seasonal effect of these winds on route selection.The fifth state shows materially improved information on the situation to the north of Japan, but surprisingly also a step back in the South Atlantic Ocean, where phantom islands are now shown, based on the expedition by Bouvet. (back)

Laatst bijgewerkt op 2018-12-21