Tijdschrift voor de Geschiedenis van de Kartografie
Journal for the history of cartography in the Netherlands

Beginpagina, inhoud en Engelstalige samenvattingen: zie venster rechts. (Staat dit venster er niet? Klik dan hier).

Home page, contents and English summaries: see window to the right (No window there? Click here).

Rubriek Kaartcollecties in Nederland: klik hier.

Inhoud 35e jaargang (2016)
Contents of volume 35 (2016)

no. 1     no. 2      no. 3     no. 4

Caert-Thresoor 35e jaargang 2016, nr. 1

Caert-Thresoor 35e jaargang 2016, nr. 2

Caert-Thresoor 35e jaargang 2016, nr. 3

Caert-Thresoor 35e jaargang 2016, nr. 4


Marco van Egmond
The map collection of Anton Albert Beekman

[Caert-Thresoor 35 (2016) 1, pp. 3-10]

The historical geographer Anton Albert Beekman (1854-1947) is known as one of the Dutch pioneers in the field of the history of cartography. He published many geographical, historical, and cartographical articles and books. For these Beekman made use of, among others, an extensive private library that consisted both of books and of maps. Quite recently the manuscript catalogue of Beekman's map collection surfaced.
This catalogue offers a fine insight in the composition of an early 20th-century private map collection and in its importance from an historicalcartographical point of view. (back)

Lida Ruitinga
The Topographische en Militaire kaart van het Koningrijk der Nederlanden digitally available in the University Library of the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

[Caert-Thresoor 35 (2016) 1, pp. 11-16]

In 2015 much work was carried out to provide digital access to the frequently consulted maps of the well-known Topographische en Militaire kaart van het Koningrijk der Nederlanden (TMK) through the University Library's Image Database (Beeldbank) . Many students, teachers and university researchers use these maps for comparative research into landscape alterations since 1850: the big spatial developments had still to take place, which means that the maps show a more or less original landscape. In the Image Database you can find all the editions of the TMK that were made available to our Library by DANS, an institute which promotes sustained access to digital research data. The maps are searchable by sheet number, which facilitates the comparison of different editions. Another set, based on maps from the UBVU Collection, has also been digitized for the Image Database. Furthermore, several sets have also been georeferenced for Geoplaza, the portal for geodata at the VU, which includes a download facility. Finally, an inventory has been made of all the TMK paper maps in the UBVU Collection. Where necessary, restoration work has taken place. Sheet-by-sheet information, including particulars about edition, physical state, stamps etc., is provided by index sheets (on paper) and, digitally, at Geoplaza. (back)

Elger Heere & Ferjan Ormeling
The accuracy of the maps of Java before the triangulation (1800-1850)

[Caert-Thresoor 35 (2016) 1, pp. 17-25]

In 1817 Thomas Stamford Raffles published his History of Java; it included what was then the most accurate map of the island (produced by Dubois in 1811). In this article a number of maps of Java, including that of Raffles, dated from 1817 until 1845 are analysed for their accuracy. Some remarkable conclusions are that the map of Van den Bosch is less accurate than the map of Raffles, which means that Van den Bosch used older sources. Von Derfelden van Hinderstein's map was no more accurate than its precursors, so the need for accurate maps remained. Indeed, the following maps of Java, made by Van de Velde and Melvill van Carnbée, were more accurate. (back)

Hans Kok
A German copperplate of an official nautical chart from 1922, concerning Batavia roadstead

[Caert-Thresoor 35 (2016) 1, pp. 26-30]

The discovery of a German copperplate, dated 1922 initially, brings to light the development of its chart image: but indirectly –due probably to changing pre-World War II political conditions. Starting from a single state, it is proven that at least three states must have existed, but that up to five are likely to have reached print, depending on the year of printing over the period 1922 to 1941 or thereafter. The copperplates depot concerned was dissolved in the 1960s. Later pulls, if any were made at all, could be only 'unofficial'. (back)

Hans Spikmans
Discovery of a rare map dated ca. 1558: Burgundian Netherlands

[Caert-Thresoor 35 (2016) 2, pp. 43-47]

This map was discovered whilst researching maps of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands in the Maurits Sabbe-library in Louvain (Belgium). The map titled Nova Galliae Belgicae Descriptio (…) relates to the mid-sixteenth century Burgundian Netherlands. The map consists of two parts. The upper part contains the title and illustrations of the coats-of-arms of all the provinces. The lower part of the map shows the area ranging from Amsterdam in the north to Reims in the south and from England in the west to Metz in the east. Research shows that the map is a copper engraving. Based on depicted battles, including the battle of St Quentin, Chatelet and Han in 1557 and the battle of Gravelines in 1558, that both took place during the Italian war of 1551-1559, the map can be dated to around 1558. Additionally, seven old Roman roads that converge at Bavay in Northern France are also represented. These roads were originally built by the Romans to allow for quick movement of armies. The creator, engraver and publisher are not indicated on the map. It is likely that the map was produced by Bernaert van den Putte's workshop. (back)

Wim Renkema
The oldest maps of Punda (Willemstad) on Curaçao

[Caert-Thresoor 35 (2016) 2, pp. 48-56]

In 1634 the Dutch conquered the island Curaçao. To defend the island against the Spaniards they built a big fort at the entrance of the main port. Soon a settlement came into being close by this fort. This was the beginning of Punda, the oldest part of Willemstad, the capital of Curaçao. Several charts from the period 1671-1728 – mainly manuscripts – show Punda's growth. These charts give not only different information, but are also supplementary to each other. It is striking that printed charts until far into the nineteenth century did not represent a correct plan of Punda. (back)

Jan Debets
F.W. Michels and his map Rotterdam 1958 Europoort

[Caert-Thresoor 35 (2016) 2, pp. 57-62]

In 1958, the port promotion council of Rotterdam harbour (stichting 'Havenbelangen' Rotterdam) celebrated its 25th anniversary. The council had seen how a troubled harbour and its industries struggled throughout the crisis and the Second World War, and rejuvenated fantastically in the 1950's. To celebrate this feat, 'Havenbelangen' issued a contract to cartographer F.W. Michels (1906-1975), to make a detailed drawing of the harbour, which by now stretched from Rotterdam to the sea and which was to be called "Rotterdam 1958 Europoort". Michels sketched his way through Rotterdam, and transferred the work as oil on canvas at his home in Amsterdam over twelve months. Ultimately, the original map was given to the municipality of Rotterdam, whose town hall it still decorates. This original is quite larger than the printed, smaller versions, which, with an edition of 2000, have significantly lower quality on close inspection. These smaller versions were given to the relatives of the 'Havenbelangen' council. Importantly, with the two new harbours (the Botlek-harbour and 'Europoort') figuring prominently on the map, which, at the time, just came into being, it portrays the harbour of Rotterdam on a watershed in history. Because by the 1960's, the harbour and its container-automated efficiency would have forever left the inner city, leaving its inhabitants with only the nostalgic imagination of harbour romance which was so present during the period of 1930-1960. (back)

Gloria Moorman
Blaeus Theatrum civitatum et admirandorum Italiae: a method of accumulating material for the town atlases of Italy

[Caert-Thresoor 35 (2016) 2, pp. 63-66]

Joan Blaeu published three volumes of his Italy atlas during his lifetime. Brought out in 1663, they describe the Ecclesiastical State (first part, book one), the ancient monuments of Rome (second part, book one) and the towns of Naples and Sicily (incomplete, book two of the first part). A Piedmont and Savoy volume was published in 1682 by Blaeus heirs; the planned work on Tuscany never materialised. Sources on the process of gathering material for the Theatrum Italiae are only scarcely available, but some information is provided in the introduction to the volume on the Ecclesiastical State. In this text, Joan Blaeu explicitly mentions some of the Italians who provided him with images and text, such as the writer Vincenzo Armanni. The contents of a letter that accompanied Armanni’s contribution suggest that he had submitted material on his own initiative; if this is the case, the Blaeus must have adopted an approach quite similar to that of Braun and Hogenberg, who directly addressed their readers in a request for material if they found information on their own residential towns was lacking. This would mean, then, that the Braun and Hogenberg atlas had served Blaeu not only as a source of information, but also of inspiration on how to gather material for his town atlases of Italy. A document published by Van Veen, identified as a draft memorandum for the De’ Medici Court related to the Tuscany volume, further reveals the approach adopted by the Blaeu's. In general, this text prescribes that both geographical and historical information on the listed places should be collected in an orderly manner, according to a well-defined system. Inhabitants of the towns themselves were regarded as the most appropriate sources of information. The contribution by Armanni, a compilation of historical material on his native Gubbio, meets this requirement. Parting from their predecessors, the Blaeus were thus structuring the process of gathering material, taking it to a new, more elaborate stage. (back)

Michael Ritter
Old maps published in Amsterdam re-issued in Augsburg by Joseph Carmine

[Caert-Thresoor 35 (2016) 3, pp. 79-90]

In the late 18th century some Italian print sellers, against the resistance of local art publishers, managed to establish themselves in the Imperial city of Augsburg. Among them there was Joseph Carmine (1749- after 1822), born in Traffiume near Lago Maggiore. Carmine mainly published optical views, but he also had a few maps in his products range. Though these maps are only of minor significance to the history of cartography, they nevertheless provide an interesting insight into the interweaving of publication and distribution centres of the graphic industry in Europe. This can be exemplified by Carmine's sixteen (so far) known maps, whose copperplates can be traced back to Amsterdam. (back)

Frans Scholten
Completion, revision and final days of the Krayenhoff map

[Caert-Thresoor 35 (2016) 3, pp. 91-103]

The 'map of Kraijenhoff' has an outstanding position in the history of Dutch cartography. It has its roots in the period of the French occupation of the Netherlands during the years 1795-1815. In this period the country became a centralized government. As a military engineer C.R.T. Kraijenhoff was ordered to perform a triangulation of the country, on the base of which a new map should be made, that however had to be composed from the best maps available. This would lead to a map of a heterogeneous composition. The scale was 800 roods to one inch, or 1:115.200. During this first period, until 1814, six of nine sheets engraved on copperplates were published, partly in Paris. After the foundation of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1814, Kraijenhoff became Inspector General of Fortifications and the work on the map that carried his name was continued. The sheets already finished were adapted to the new political situation and the remaining three were finished, partly based on surveys which were performed by military officers specially for this purpose. In the Topographisch Bureau, under the direction of Kraijenhoff's cousin M.J. de Man, a team of specialists worked on the completion of the map. Besides the surveying officers there were draughtsmen, engravers and printers at work. The first complete edition of the map was finished in 1823. As it was sold out rapidly, a new edition was necessary and became available in 1829. After these highlights the map lost its importance very fast because of its old fashioned and heterogeneous composition and scale. Subsequently only very few maps were sold. No new surveys were performed and at last only one engraver, J.M. Leydenroth, worked on the map. To adapt the map he used several sources, so that the map could be brought up to date with the recently constructed roads, canals and polders. Because he was engaged also for other map drawing work, the revision of the Kraijenhoff map proceeded very slowly. That it was continued, nevertheless, was because it was still used for military purposes. It served for the drawing of defensive lines of fortifications and inundations, on which there was much discussion and change in these years. Doing so, only in 1857 was a new, revised sheet VI published, followed by sheet numbers II (1858), V (1862) and IV (1865). In 1860 a new 'Verklaring van de teekens' (explanation of [conventional] signs) was published. In 1865 the revision of sheets VIII and IX was started but, due to the combination of Leydenroth's advanced age and the declining state of the copperplates, they could not be completed. The definitive ending of the map came in 1877 with Leydenroth's retirement. (back)

Jason Hubbard & Frederik Muller
Lost and Found: Hendrick Doncker II's Nieuw Groot Zeekaart Boek, Amsterdam,1714

[Caert-Thresoor 35 (2016) 3, pp. 104-114]

Unknown until this lone example surfaced recently in the United States, the Nieuw Groot Zeekaart Boek was one of the few surviving works by Hendrick Doncker II, the son (1664-1739). Composed entirely of double, triple and quadruple-folio charts of the major contemporary Dutch trading routes, the atlas shows the European coastline northwards from Amsterdam to Novaya Zemlya and Archangel, and southwards from Amsterdam to include the whole of the Mediterranean on a large scale. The atlas also documents the route to the Indies around Africa; the Pacific; and part of the Americas. The find is important for various reasons. First: the atlas contains 11 unrecorded charts by the Donckers and one by Gerrit van Schagen. Second: contrary to what has been suggested about him before, it shows that Hendrick Doncker II was actively publishing charts and atlases to at least 1714. Third: the atlas shows charts of equal latitude projection next to charts of the same area with increasing latitude as if wanting to provide the captain with the choice for navigation that suits him best; a new phenomenon. Fourth: this Doncker publication illustrates a development from double-folio, towards three or four double-folio, charts that are folded into very large atlases. This change began with the Neptune François, printed in Paris and in Amsterdam in 1693. The find also raises another question: why is it that so few of the late and new atlases, or large charts, by Doncker II survive? One could suppose that he made serious efforts to hold on to the market of maritime charts in spite of the declining Dutch dominance at the time. One way to do so was to produce huge and detailed charts of the routes most frequently used by Dutch sailors, with an unprecedented amount of detail, important to the captains. Of these uncoloured printed charts used at sea few, if any, survive. They were simply used until they were destroyed. Small wonder, then, that those that do survive are to be found bound up as an enormous atlas, coloured especially for prestigious, land-based clients. As these atlases were not produced in series but rather on demand, few of them must have been made. The printing of a special title-page and index, however, suggests that atlases of these large charts, all in full colour and bound in an elephant binding, were produced in more than individual copies. It is precisely these that served as survival kits for the unrecorded Doncker II charts that otherwise would have remained undocumented and lost forever. (back)

Hans Ferwerda
Collecting nautical charts: coastal views

[Caert-Thresoor 35 (2016) 4, pp. 131-142]

In this digital era, nieneteenth- and twentieth century paper charts will soon become 'historic'. In previous articles the author described the origin of the collection, the topography and use of colour, and the depiction of the seabed. This article deals with an attractive element on many charts in the collection: the coastal view (or profile). Even people with no special interest in charts are often charmed by such pretty engraved 'pictures' depicting off-shore views of the charted coast. Coastal views are meant to be used in coastal navigation. The author notes that any view will be included in a chart for a certain purpose. He distinguishes seven different types of coastal view (a – g) that sometimes tend to overlap, and shows examples of each with a description of the intended purpose. The author found that many others have already written about these, in relation to their history, and he noted that several terms are in use (in Dutch and in English) for 'kustverkenningen'. One of these is the ancient word 'opdoenninge', used by Lucas J. Waghenaer in 1585. The (related) Dutch word 'opdoemen' means 'looming up'. But, according to other sources, "opdoeming der zee" is also associated with a 'mirage'. Some attention is given to the practice of 'constructing' coastal views during a survey. In the author's collection there are no examples of views on Dutch charts, unfortunately. As compensation the author has been searching in the Dutch Nationaal Archief, and found numerous Dutch originals dating back to roughly 1840-1950, from Indonesian coasts. Examples are shown and he shows that very many of these views were included in the Netherlands Sailing Directions; subsequently many were copied in the British Sailing Directions. The use of views strongly diminished after 1990, however. Finally the author makes mention of some special forms of this feature, including a long coastal view for the Cinque Ports Pilot (1851), and of an attractive British publication on views. (back)

Cor Nonhof
Structure of the map of Delfland of 1712 by the Kruikius brothers

[Caert-Thresoor 35 (2016) 4, pp. 143-146]

Delfland was ascertained by referencing the church steeples to the present-day topographical map. It was deduced that the map consisted of at least three separate parts. In this study the main roads, dykes and waterways are used to obtain a more detailed picture of the map's constituent parts. To improve the map's quality to the necessary level all the minutes in the grid were cut out and corrected for warpage and size differences. The complete map was reconstructed using the grid in minutes. It proved necessary to change the height to width ratio by 0,2% to allow the grid of the 25 map sections to be square. Fourteen separate maps were recognized of which four were rotated by more than a few tenths of a degree. (back)

Ron Guleij
The copper plates collection of the Hydrographical Service

[Caert-Thresoor 35 (2016) 4, pp. 147-152]

On October 12th, 2012 the Study Group for the History of Cartography organised an afternoon symposium on the history of maritime cartography between the sixteenth and twentieth centuries. The reason for this was the transfer of an extensive collection of copper plates from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to the National Maritime Museum in Amsterdam. The plates belonged to the archive of the Hydrographical Service (Navy and Army division), based in The Hague. This article expands on a lecture, entitled 'The Hydrographical Service from 1874 onwards: from systematic survey to nautical chart', given during this symposium. Amongst other things, it can serve as a reference when studying the aforementioned copper plates. So far, little has been written about the production method and ways of correcting copper plates and the printing of Dutch hydrographical charts in the twentieth century. (back)

Laatst bijgewerkt op 2017-02-10