Tijdschrift voor de Geschiedenis van de Kartografie
Journal for the history of cartography in the Netherlands

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Inhoud 28e jaargang (2009)
Contents of volume 28 (2009)

nr. 1     nr. 2      nr. 3     nr. 4

Caert-Thresoor 28e jaargang 2009, nr. 1

Caert-Thresoor 28e jaargang 2009, nr. 2

Caert-Thresoor 28e jaargang 2009, nr. 3

Caert-Thresoor 28e jaargang 2009, nr. 4


Dick Rozing
Willem van de Hoonaard (1788-1862), schoolteacher and pioneer in geographical education

[Caert-Thresoor 28 (2009) 1, pp. 6-11]

At the beginning of the nineteenth century geographical education in primary schools was still in its infancy. Van den Hoonaard, head of a primary school since 1811, wrote many geography books for young teachers. In 1817 he was the first teacher who developed a school map of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. At that time pupils learned from their text-books each of which included a small topographic map; he exchanged this for a larger wall-map for the whole class, although it was still a small cardboard map of 36 x 38 cm. This map had a high aesthetic standard but it did not satisfy the demands of the new object teaching method of his time. After enquiring of Pestalozzi and others he enlarged it in order that pupils at the back of the class could see it better. In 1824 he wrote a handbook for young teachers on what and how they should teach their pupils in geographical education, thus affording a contemporary insight into methods. (back)

Florine Asselbergs
Lienzo de Quauhquechollan: the oldest map of Guatemala

[Caert-Thresoor 28 (2009) 1, pp. 12-18]

Lienzo de Quauhquechollan (cotton cloth, 2.35 x 3.25 m) is an impressively detailed narrative map from Mexico/Guatemala, only but recently deciphered. It was painted according to the Nahua pictorial writing tradition, probably between 1530 and 1540. The authors were Quauhquecholtecas, a Nahua group from Central Mexico, who had assisted the Spanish conquistador Jorge de Alvarado in the conquest of Guatemala (1527-1529). In a geographical setting, they present their contribution to the Spanish wars of conquest claiming titles and privileges in return. This depiction is the oldest known map of Guatemala and a rare account of the indigenous view on the Spanish conquest. Its re-discovered contents have overturned conventional views of the Spanish conquest of Mesoamerica. (back)

Paul van den Brink
"De Noordnederlandsche tongvallen". Some notes to the unfinished linguistic atlas of the Koninklijk Nederlands Aardrijkskundig Genootschap

[Caert-Thresoor 28 (2009) 1, pp. 19-24]

In 1899 and 1901 the Netherlands Geographical Society published two numbers of a dialect atlas of the Netherlands entitled ‘De Noordnederlandsche tongvallen’. The atlas was based on a large-scale linguistic inventory, undertaken by the Society as early as 1879, of the vernacular language in the Netherlands; the instigator was the Leiden philologist Johan Hendrik Caspar Kern (1833-1917). The results of this catalogue that included data on vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation, complemented with materials gathered between 1894 and 1895, were mapped by the Dutch linguist Jan te Winkel (1842-1927). Only two of his fourteen maps, each of them visualizing the distribution of a vernacular phenomenon, were published at the turn of the century. As the Society failed to collect the necessary funds for completing the project, the atlas was then left unfinished. Between 1922 and 1924 the remainder of the maps, all completed in manuscript, as well as all the other documents, were then handed over to the Research Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. There they were studied by a new generation of linguists who judged the material by its true merits. (back)

Elger Heere
Old maps in a GIS: possibilities and difficulties

[Caert-Thresoor 28 (2009) 2, pp. 33-39]

This article deals with the possibilities and problems on the development of a geographic information system (GIS) for historical research. As a case study a GIS for property maps was set up. In this article a description is given of the constituents of the GIS data. There are several kinds of maps, among them topographical map series, physical geographical maps and archaeological maps. The GIS database contains information which can be found on the property maps, such as: archival information, surveyor, date, information on infrastructure and other topographical elements. The GIS is tested intensively by subjects using the ‘thinkaloud’ method, in which they had to voice every thought they had during a task performance. These performances, recorded on audio- and videotape, were then analysed. The described conclusions concern the amount of data a person can handle with a GIS, the system’s function and a description of the system’s metadata. (back)

Henk Reitsma
Maps and gunpowder: damage maps of black powder explosions in the Netherlands

[Caert-Thresoor 28 (2009) 2, pp. 41-47]

Within the Netherlands a considerable number of large black powder explosions have taken place in the past. Eight of these accidents occurred close to (or even within) a city, resulting in extensive damage to civil property. The earliest known printed damage map is one drawn in 1807 by cartographer P. van Campen depicting the damage in Leiden caused by the explosion, in the city centre, of a ship loaded with approx. 18.000 kg. of black powder. The explosion damage in Bergen op Zoom in 1831, too, has been depicted on a printed map. However, the very first of such maps – although not printed - is one drawn in 1762, by military cartographer J.H. Lappé, of the fortifications in Maastricht: these were damaged by the explosion of a magazine containing 17.000 kg. This map also depicts a small civil part of the city, where civilians were killed. A large explosion occurred also in 1883 when the black powder factory near the city of Muiden blew up almost completely. Although extensive damage was done in the city itself the government focused their attention mainly on the cause of the explosion and the damage inflicted to the factory. A report was written including a map of the factory premises which explained the sequence of the explosions and showed the destroyed buildings. This map can be considered as an early map of an industrial disaster. Besides these four, black powder explosions took place in Bredevoort (1646), Delft (1654), Heusden (1680) and Amersfoort (1787); but damage maps of these accidents do not exist - not even of the Delft disaster which was the largest black powder explosion ever in Dutch history. (back)

Piet Broeders
Nineteenth-century map criticism: Von Derfeldens letter to Vincedon-Dumoulin

[Caert-Thresoor 28 (2009) 2, pp. 48-54]

C.A. Vincendon–Dumoulin (1811-1858), hydrographer of the French Dépôt de la Marine and member of the crew of the ‘Astrolabe’ and the ‘Zélée’ during the expedition to the South Pole and Oceania (1837-1840), contributed a chart of Borneo to the Atlas Pittoresque volume of the Histoire du Voyage. He got the chart’s manuscript from Van den Dungen Gronovius, an ex-resident of Pontianak. Because the information on this person’s chart was out of date Von Derfelden van Hinderstein, the author of the ‘Algemeene Kaart van Nederlandsch Oost- Indië’ (1842), criticized Vincendon-Dumoulin in a letter to him, referring him instead to sheets 2 and 7 of his own 1842 chart. (back)

Wim Renkema
The origin of the first modern maps of Aruba (1820-1828)

[Caert-Thresoor 28 (2009) 3, pp. 65-70]

When the English relinquished the island of Aruba to the Dutch in 1816 no map of the island existed. In 1820 a former naval officer, W.A. van Spengler, took a voluntary two months’ leave as harbour master of Curaçao to make a map. In the years following the result of his efforts remained unknown. It was only in 1824, when gold was found and preparations were made for geological exploration, that Van Spengler’s work received due appreciation. All maps made from 1825 through 1828, including the first printed and geological maps, are based on his pioneering work. (back)

Rob van Gent en Marco van Egmont
400 year telescope: old celestial maps and prints available on the Internet

[Caert-Thresoor 28 (2009) 3, pp. 71-75]

Recently, a collection of newly digitized maps was added to the cumulative website Digitized maps (http://kaarten.library.uu.nl/index.php?lang=en) of the University Library of Utrecht: about 100 old star maps and prints have been made accessible for everybody under the title 400 Jaar sterrekijker. This was in response to the fact that four centuries ago - in 1608 - the telescope was invented in Middelburg; in addition, 2009 is the International Year of Astronomy. From the rich collection of celestial atlases, lunar atlases, loose star maps, and astronomical pamphlets and prints in Utrecht’s University Library a selection has been made of the most special and rare copies. In a striking way they show us how the practice of astronomy in the last 400 years in the Netherlands and elsewhere has developed. (back)

Lowie Brink
A cartographic contest between geographic heavyweights: the school wall maps of the Netherlands by Beekman (1888) and Blink (1894)

[Caert-Thresoor 28 (2009) 4, pp. 89-97]

The beginning of modern Dutch geography is marked by two classic works of Beekman (Nederland als Polderland, 1884) and Blink (Nederland en zijne Bewoners, 1887-1892). Little known, however, is the fact that after publication of these books both Beekman and Blink each produced a detailed school wall map of the Netherlands to a scale of 1:175.000. These two maps present a unique possibility to compare the cartographic realisation of the geographic ideas of two Dutch geography pioneers. After examining the depiction of hydrography, soil types, relief, and settlement types, it was concluded that Beekman’s map is superior with regard to originality and sobriety, whereas Blink’s map is first when considering completeness and symbolisation. (back)

Marleen Smit
The depiction of the Netherlands on nineteenth century cartoon maps of Europe

[Caert-Thresoor 28 (2009) 4, pp. 98-103]

In the nineteenth century it was in vogue to design cartoon maps of Europe in which all countries were depicted as animals, persons or objects. These representations have a highly symbolic value and are a great tool to access contemporary minds. In this article we focus on the depiction of the Netherlands in this type of map: it is interesting to see which symbols are chosen to represent the country and why specific symbols with high value in earlier centuries are not used at all. We can learn something about the political role of the Netherlands, but even more we can access information about the image of the Netherlands in the second half of the nineteenth century. In order to cover this topic, it is necessary to explore the category of cartoon maps first. (back)

Ferjan Ormeling
The Michels panoramic map collection in Utrecht University Library

[Caert-Thresoor 28 (2009) 4, pp. 104-109]

Ricus Michels (1906-1975) became, after a career in the merchant navy, a self-taught cartographer with a specific style. He developed new projections and a rather dynamic style in his maps, but is best known for his panoramic maps. With these he characterised the Dutch landscape in a time long before the preservation of our tangible cultural heritage as expressed in landscape and building styles became a fashionable matter of concern. In the 1960s and ’70s his regional panoramic maps of the Netherlands were printed on beer cans and on the boxes in which these were sold; and fancy paper prints of these maps could be obtained from the brewery. As such his maps were distributed in numbers no other cartographer had seen before him. Shortly before his death Utrecht University Library was able to acquire a collection of his original drawings together with extensive documentation about how the data were collected and how the maps were constructed and drawn. (back)

Laatst bijgewerkt op 29/03/2010 door Gijs Boink