Tijdschrift voor de geschiedenis van de cartografie
Journal for the history of cartography in the Netherlands

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Inhoud 25e jaargang (2006)
Contents of volume 25 (2006)

no. 1     no. 2     no. 3     no. 4

Caert-Thresoor 25e jaargang 2006, nr. 1

Caert-Thresoor 25e jaargang 2006, nr. 2

Caert-Thresoor 25e jaargang 2006, nr. 3

Caert-Thresoor 25e jaargang 2006, nr. 4

Jubileumnummer Van Deventer & Antwerpen


Herman J. Versfelt
The Hottinger maps

[Caert-Thresoor 25 (2005) 1, pp. 1-5]

In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries the provinces of the Netherlands bordering on Germany and Belgium have, in view of their importance for defence purposes, been frequently mapped by military engineers. Of the eastern provinces, the most important series of maps produced is known as ‘The Hottinger atlas’. This collection of 112 maps, all on a scale of 1:14.400, was completed between 1773 and 1794. The maps are very detailed and are of great value for our knowledge of the historical landscape. In this article a description is given of the activities of the military engineers during the four phases in which the maps were made. Furthermore the topographical details shown on the maps are described. An atlas with all the Hottinger maps has been published in 2003 by the Historical Society of Drenthe (H.J. Versfelt, De Hottinger-atlas van Noord- en Oost-Nederland 1773-1794). (back)

Ab Goutbeek
The 18th century manuscript map of the provincie of Overijssel by Samuël Kupfer

[Caert-Thresoor 25 (2006) 1, pp. 6-10]

An unknown manuscript map of the province of Overijssel has recently surfaced. The map is part of the private collection of W.J. baron van Heeckeren van Molecaten in Doorn. It was made by Samuël Kupfer en dates from the middle of the eighteenth century. Because of the equality of scale, a relation is presumed with the 1738 map of Peter de la Rive. This map is based on the 1652 map of Nicolaas ten Have. The Hattinga family copied the map of De la Rive more than once in 1748-49. The map of Kupfer is made before 1748. If Kupfer based it’s map on De la Rive’s map, it dates after 1738. If the Kupfer map was a source for De la Rive, the map must have been made shortly before 1738. (back)

Peter van der Krogt
'Kartografie' or 'Cartografie'?

[Caert-Thresoor 25 (2006) 1, pp. 11-12]

Until 1995 the word for cartography could be spelled in the Dutch language as ‘kartografie’ and as ‘cartografie’. With the spelling reform of 1995 only ‘cartografie’ was allowed. Just as the Nederlandse Vereniging voor Kartografie (Dutch Association for Cartography) Caert-Thresoor kept spelling ‘kartografie’. In November 2005 the editorial board decided that from beginning 2006, Caert-Thresoor will use ‘cartografie’. In respect to this the origin of the word cartography is researched. It is not invented by the Viscount of Santarem in 1839, as is stated in the literature. The oldest mentions of the word are found in 1829 in the year report of the Société de Géographie in Paris (as ‘cartographique’) and in 1828 in a paper read by the German Geographer Carl Ritter (as ‘Kartograph’), which was published only in 1832. The oldest mention in Dutch is in 1845 as ‘cartographie’. Thus there is no historical reason to keep a spelling with a ‘c’ or ‘k’ in Dutch. (back)

Lowie Brink
R. Schuiling’s Schoolkaart van Insulinde: A survey of the cartography in the Dutch East Indies in 1898 on five m2

[Caert-Thresoor 25 (2006) 1, pp. 13-19]

In 1898 the already famous geographer R. Schuiling published a large-sized school wall map of the Malay Archipelago. In the design of this map, as well as in his other work, the importance of the natural environment was the underlying principle, as shown by the careful representation of oro-hydrography, sea depths, volcanic activity and the transition between the two continents. Furthermore, by compiling this wall map from a large number of available cartographic sources (official and private), Schuiling presented a summary of the 19th-century cartographic achievements in the Dutch East Indies. (back)

Ferjan Ormeling
Rendering Suriname in the Bosatlas 1877-1940

[Caert-Thresoor 25 (2006) 2, pp. 25-32]

The way in which Suriname was depicted in the foremost school atlas of the Netherlands, the Bosatlas (1st edition 1887), now in its 52nd edition, changed considerably over time. Initially just a narrow coastal strip was rendered since the 3rd edition, and this was gradually extended southwards, in tune with the exploration for gold of the eastern part of the country. The western part of the country was explored only in the period 1900-1910 by expeditions organised by the Royal Netherlands Geographical Society. In the maps the various phases of exploitation of the interior are reflected: after the gold rush there was the balata rush, and the second phase of the agricultural exploitation. The infrastructure for these various type of exploitation has been depicted as well, such as the railway line to the interior, that originally was planned to link up with the supposed gold fields along the Marowijne river. The sources on which these maps in the Bosatlas are based are discussed.
The boundaries with British and French Guyana are also a point of interest; over time, the various editors of the Bosatlas had changing interpretations of the claims by the neighbouring countries, and rendered these accordingly.
The big difference with the maps of the other Dutch colonies in the Bosatlas was that the map of Suriname (apart from the topography) was the only one to portray minerals, vegetation characteristics, and ethnographic data. Apparently the otherwise almost empty interior had to be filled! (back)

Lesley Peterson
An Early English Translation of Ortelius: Elizabeth Tanfield Cary’s Manuscript The Mirror of the Worlde

[Caert-Thresoor 25 (2006) 2, pp. 33-40]

The earliest known translation of Ortelius into English is the unpublished manuscript The Mirror of the Worlde, written by Elizabeth Tanfield (later Cary), ca. 1597, when she was only eleven or twelve years old, and dedicated to her mother’s uncle, the prominent courtier Sir Henry Lee. Cary has become important to English literature, mainly for her original play, The Tragedy of Mariam (ca. 1605); she is also well known for her scandalous conversion to Roman Catholicism in later life. However, to date her early translation remains neglected and its source misidentified. This is a largely complete, mainly accurate, and often stylish, translation of the texts accompanying the maps in the 1588/90 Epitome du Théâtre du monde. Cary’s choice to translate Ortelius, and this edition in particular, suggests an astute grasp of her Protestant uncle’s interests and values, while at the same time demonstrating an early, subversive, interest in Roman Catholic Italy. (back)

Paul van den Brink & Marc Hameleers
Nouveau Plan de la Ville d’Amsterdam: a touristic map of Amsterdam engraved by W.C. van Baarsel and published by J. Guykens (1837-1850)

[Caert-Thresoor 25 (2006) 2, pp. 41-46]

The article highlights a so far unknown edition of Johannes Guyken’s Nouveau Plan de la Ville d’Amsterdam. The map, which was engraved by Willem Cornelis van Baarsel, is printed on silk and preserved in the publisher’s lovely little slipcase that could be easily carried when travelling to the city by the new train or around it in the new horse-drawn omnibuses. At a scale of 1:12,000, it shows the streets, canals and principal buildings, including the new train station and the headquarters of the new omnibus company (both opened in 1839). The streets, and a few of the most important buildings, are named on the map itself, while 93 buildings are numbered and listed in the key. The article makes clear that that six different states exist. They were published in the years 1837-1850. The 4th state mentioned here is ‘new’ and was not described in A.E. d’Ailly’s Catalogus van Amsterdamsche plattegronden which was published in 1934. (back)

Dick Blonk
The Ortelius - Van Deventer map of Zeeland: a map with many states

[Caert-Thresoor 25 (2006) 3, pp. 59-63]

The map of the province of Zeeland is present in all editions of the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum of Abraham Ortelius, from the first edition in 1570 to the last one published after 1640. During this long period many things were changed; in the first place the decorations, the title cartouche, and the picture of Neptune; later on also the map itself. Worn out parts in the copperplate were restored and new developments in the geo- graphy of the region were added. These changes have resulted in a remarkable number of nine states of the copperplate:

  1. 1570.
  2. 1572: changes in the title cartouche and the figure of Neptune.
  3. 1573: addition of S cerpenisse.
  4. 1573: addition of Ternu esen.
  5. 1574: changes in a ship and the title cartouche.
  6. 1580: several alterations to the topography and in the title cartouche.
  7. 1592: addition of W illemstat and alterations to the decorative elements.
  8. 1606: addition of fortification near Sluis.
  9. after 1640: additon of fortifications near Antwerp and on Tholen.

J.M. Mohrmann
Worldwide triangulation as 'Infatible basis' for nineteenth-century maps

[Caert-Thresoor 25 (2006) 3, pp. 64-71]

In 1787 the chronometric connection between the observatories of Greenwich and Paris marked the real start of worldwide triangulation. Scientists at the highest level (in this case astronomers, geodesists and hydrographers) organised themsel- ves through the medium of international journals. From 1820 onwards, starting with the foundation of the Royal Astronomical Society (in London), all directors of national observatories and the worldÕs leading geodesists and hydrographers came toge- ther in one organisation. From 1821, hydrographers of the Royal Netherlands Navy began the prime triangulation of the Netherlands Asiatic Archipelago. This triangulation network was con- nected to that of colonel Everest in British India. In fact Dutch hydrographers coupled the time ball of Batavia (now Jakarta) via Calcutta (now Kolkata) with the rest of the world. Batavia's time ball was the geographic reference for the whole Archipelago. Recent research, with GPS measure- ments in place of the old time ball, confirmed the amazing high accuracy of the triangulation net- work of our fore-fathers. (back)

Louis van Empelen
Art and map: the Civitas Hierusalem 1538 by Herman van Borculo

[Caert-Thresoor 25 (2006) 3, pp. 72-80]

The realistic cityscape Civitas Hierusalem 1538 by Herman van Borculo († 1578) has been studied independently by art historians and by historians of cartography. Cartographic research has shown the importance of the woodcut which has been copied in many countries for about 250 years. Additional art-historical research has shown that the print is not an independent work of art but an imitation of The Entry of Christ into Jerusalem (1527) by Jan van Scorel. It follows that collabo- ration between the two disciplines is desirable in order to obtain a complete picture when resear- ching early cityscapes. Comparison of information on the woodcut itself and in the Utrecht Archives with the life of Herman van Borculo in biogra- phies proves that uncritical use of these biogra- phies can lead to misinterpretation. (back)

Mathieu Franssen
'Ducatus Brabantiae’ has come to the surface: some notes on the rediscovery of an unknown variant of the map of Brabant by Jacob van Deventer

[Caert-Thresoor 25 (2006) 4, pp. 91-98]

The earliest surviving printed map of the Duchy of Brabant by Jacob Van Deventer was dated 1558 but was destroyed in Wroclaw (Breslau) in 1945. It had long been considered as the sole surviving exemplar, but now another has surfaced. In 1998 a second – and hitherto unknown – exemplar, which had formerly been in an Italian private collection, was acquired by the Royal Library of Belgium, via the Brussels antiquarian book- and map-dealer Henri Godts. The map is seriously damaged, but unique and irreplaceable from an historical and cartographical perspective. It consists of more sheets than had been accepted up to now: 10 instead of 6, because the decorated band with 66 portraits forms an integral part of the wooden blocks on which the map is cut. There is still no exemplar known of Van Deventer’s original map from 1536. The maps in Wroclaw and Brussels were both published by Arnout Nicolai in Antwerp. The Brussels exemplar is, as far as the wood-cutting is concerned, identical to that in Wroclaw. It differs however in the added text which contains a dedication, imprint, legend, and explanation. Both are variants of a second state of the original 1536 map, because the portrait of Philip II is from a later date. It is possible that the newly discovered map was printed and published around 1556 and is, therefore, an older copy than the Wroclaw map. (back)

Wouter Bracke
Map of Scheldeland by Jacob van Deventer

[Caert-Thresoor 25 (2006) 4, pp. 99-103]

Commissioned by the States of the Provinces, and by their Governors, Jacob van Deventer (+ 1575) made between 1536 and 1547 regional maps of the provinces of Brabant, Holland, Gelderland, Friesland and of Zeeland. Made for political and military reasons, only a few copies could have circulated. Van Deventer’s maps, nevertheless, had an enormous influence on contemporary cartography: from 1556 onwards, thanks to Venetian and Roman engravers, printers, and publishers; and thereafter in Abraham Ortelius’ Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (1570). No original has ever been found. Fortunately, the regional map of Brabant which the Royal Library of Belgium bought in 1998 but had mysteriously disappeared for some time could be identified as another copy of Deventer’s regional maps.
It is of some interest to compare this map of Brabant to another, also in the Royal Library, representing the Scheldt area in the Duchy of Brabant and which is - if not by the cartographer himself - most probably from Deventer’s circle. The geographical information on this manuscript map on paper which, on the basis of its watermark has been dated to the early second half of the 16 th century is even more precise than on Deventer’s regional map. The lower Scheldt beneath Antwerp is almost identical to that on Mercator’s wall-map of Flanders of 1540 which, it has been argued, had been based on Deventer’s measurements. Both maps share other peculiarities, particularly as regards to the place names. The manuscript map could thus constitute an additional proof of the relation between Deventer and Mercator in representing the Netherlands under the Hapsburgs. It can also explain certain differences in the representation of the Scheldt area in the Duchy of Brabant on other maps of the 16th and 17th centuries. (back)

François Van der Jeught and Paul De Win
Unpublished documents from the Mechelen archives on Jacob van Deventer

[Caert-Thresoor 25 (2006) 4, pp. 104-107]

Jacob van Deventer dwelt in Mechelen from 1542 until 1572 and lived unmarried with Barbara Smets alias Kemmers (ca. 1513 – ca. 1597); all their children died very young. Barbara Smets was part of a circle of engravers, printers, publishers, and booksellers, and helped Van Deventer with the printing of his maps, perhaps even with their colouring and finishing. As a map-seller she also supplied, for example, various maps of Mechelen to its town council in 1578.
When political troubles reached their climax in Brabant 1572, and Spanish troops sacked Mechelen in October, Van Deventer went into exile to Cologne; he died there early in 1575. Barbara Smets made attempts to obtain her share of his estate: towards the end of 1577 she travelled to Cologne and tried to prove that she had been living with Jacob van Deventer as a married woman. The two surviving statements by witnesses were probably among the documents she submitted to try and prove that she was legally married to him and could therefore inherit.
According to these statements Barbara Smets asserted that she was Van Deventer’s married wife ‘before God’. He, too, had declared that he consi-dered her his married wife ‘before God and in the eyes of the world’. But the witnesses also stated that, although they lived as a married couple, they had not been married ‘in the eyes of the church’. The Council of Trent concluded that no legally contracted marriage had existed and in the end Barbara Smets had to admit to the council of Cologne that she had lived with Van Deventer as his mistress. Nevertheless the Council of Trent offered her a part of his estate.
The present paper shows that Barbara Smets was an independent and self confident business-woman, as well as a talented draughtswoman and map colourist. Neither witness statement has been published before; each makes it evident that Barbara Smets ought to share the honour in Van Deventer’s cartographical works. (back)

Eric Leenders
The map of Flanders by Gerard Mercator and Jacob van Deventer

[Caert-Thresoor 25 (2006) 4, pp. 108-115]

The map ‘Vlaenderen Exactissima Flandriae de-scriptio’ is a unique piece which is attributed to Gerard Mercator. Since 1877, when this unique map appeared and was bought by the city of Ant-werp, it has been suggested that the map might be rather the work of Jacob van Deventer. Through the study of symbols of reference points used for measuring by Van Deventer on his regio-nal maps, compared to those used on the Flan-ders map, the author concludes that the latter was almost certainly surveyed by Van Deventer and engraved by Mercator. (back)

Peter van der Krogt
Which towns in the Low Countries were mapped by Van Deventer for Philip II?

[Caert-Thresoor 25 (2006) 4, pp. 116-120]

Jacob van Deventer was commissioned in the 1550s to map all the towns in the Low Countries belonging to Philip II. He made his manuscript plans in two series: a series of draft versions (‘minuten’), and a series of fair copies. The fair copies were bound in three volumes, of which one has been lost and two are in the Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid. These volumes include 178 maps showing 186 towns. Of the 149 sheets of draft versions (covering 156 towns) still preserved 35 are of towns which were in the lost volume. Here an investigation is made, by comparing the list of towns in Guicciardini’s description of the Netherlands of 1567 andon Blaeu’s wall-map of the Seventeen Provinces, into both how accurate Van Deventer was in his choice of towns and into deducing which towns were in the lost volume. It is concluded that Van Deventer and Guicciardini agree for the larger, walled towns, but that there is a larger discrepancy for the smaller, open towns. In Flanders, however, Van Deventer was much less accurate: he even ‘forgot’ to map one of the most important towns, Ieper (Ypres). The lost volume should have included about 65 to 75 maps of towns in Brabant, Luxembourg and Namur. The total number of towns mapped by Van Deventer during twelve years was 250 to 260, that is about 22 per year (summer only). (back)

Ivonne Lempke
One monastery, two maps. Who is right? The ‘Koningsveld’ monastery south of Delft on Van Deventer’s map and on a painted map of Delft

[Caert-Thresoor 25 (2006) 4, pp. 121-123]

In 1252 a nunnery named ‘Koningsveld’ (Eng: King’s Field) was established south of Delft by Richardis, the paternal aunt of Willem II. ‘Ko-ningsveld’ was demolished by order of the Prince of Orange in 1572, who was afraid that the inva-ding Spanish forces might use it as a stronghold. Two contemporary paintings depict the nunnery : one by an unknown artist of the situation in Delft after the Great Fire of 1536, and a second of a city map of Delft painted by Van Deventer in 1556- 1557. Both depict buildings, but with important spatial differences. The painting of the post-Great Fire situation depicts an enclosed site with a chapel and its western tower in the middle and a building block to the west; the cloister is absent (fig. 1). Van Deventer’s map depicts a moated site with a chapel and cloister to the north and a small lake and some outer buildings to the south (fig. 2).
The site of the ‘Koningsveld’ nunnery has been excavated by the archaeological service of the municipality of Delft during four seasons, of which the last took place during the summer of 2003. The remains of a cloister, three cloister wings, outer buildings, a granary and some small moats were located (fig. 3). The cloister itself was enclosed by a kitchen and rafter to the north, a building block to the west, a tower to the east and a chapel to the south (fig. 4). Both paintings were compared with the excavation plan. The anony-mous painter’s work considerably contradicted this plan; the absence of the cloister and the misplacement of the tower were the most significant differences. Van Deventer’s map, on the other hand, depicted several similarities: the spatial locations of the cloister, the water and the granary corresponded well with the excavated remains. The chapel depicted on the Van Deventer’s map however was standardized and disagreed with the chapel foundations located during the excavation.
The conclusion was that Van Deventer’s map depicted the spatial layout of ‘Koningsveld’ more closely than the painting of the post-1536 Great Fire of Delft situation. (back)

Piet Lombaerde
An unknown sixteenth-century bird’s-eye view of Antwerp and its fortifications discovered

[Caert-Thresoor 25 (2006) 4, pp. 124-129]

An anonymous and uncoloured engraved print has recently surfaced representing the city of Antwerp and numerous places, dikes, and forts around it; the print is unknown in reference sources. The city is represented from the east side as a panoramic view with a great part of the polders, dikes, villa-ges and towns behind it. The river Scheldt, with the numerous forts of Antwerp constructed during the Calvinist period (1577-1585), gives structure to the whole print which is dated to the summer of 1584. The topographical details are identified by their names, sometimes added in ink. Very note-worthy is the representation of the ship bridge of Alessandro Farnese built by the Spanish troops in 1584-85 during the siege. The representation of this bridge was later added on a separate piece of glued paper. This engraving was made probably in the studio of Joannes van Doetecum when he was working in Deventer. (back)

Laatst bijgewerkt door Peter van der Krogt