Tijdschrift voor de geschiedenis van de kartografie
Journal for the history of cartography in the Netherlands

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Inhoud 23e jaargang (2004)
Contents of volume 23 (2004)

no. 1     no. 2     no. 3     no. 4

Caert-Thresoor 23e jaargang 2004, nr. 1

Caert-Thresoor 23e jaargang 2004, nr. 2

Caert-Thresoor 23e jaargang 2004, nr. 3

Caert-Thresoor 23e jaargang 2004, nr. 4

Themanummer: Fantasia Cartographica


Marcel van den Broecke
The first state of the Vrients/Philips Galle 'Inferioris Germaniae' map

[Caert-Thresoor 23 (2004) 1, pp. 1-4]

A first state of the Inferioris Germaniae map which Vrients included in the 1608 edition of the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, presumed to have been lost, has now been found and has returned to the Low Countries. This state, most probably made by Philip Galle, was postulated by Schilder, Meurer and notably van der Heijden on the basis of similar maps by Blaeu and van Doetecum which apparently derive from it. However, the name of its presumed maker, Philips Galle is not mentioned on this first state. (back)

Ferjan Ormeling
Place name change models and European expansion

[Caert-Thresoor 23 (2004) 1, pp. 5-13]

During the Age of Discovery, the Europeans gradually extended the Ecumene and adapted it to their own culture. This paper models their naming behaviour. For a model to fit, we must first discern between the areas of the previously existing Ecumene (Europe itself, Arab lands, Persia, India, China and Japan) and the areas beyond. The latter were sparsely inhabited, underdeveloped areas, where the population spoke unknown languages. Later, when contacts with the native population had been established and their language learnt, local names were transferred to the explorers, phonetically or in translation. By that time, most explorers' names for settlements along the coast had been well-established, so that indigenous names or translated names are only found (and codified) inland. European exploration beyond the Ecumene (for instance the coasts of South, Southeast and East Asia and East Africa) usually meant that existing names were copied and assimilated into the explorers' languages. In their colonies, the European powers imposed some names in their own languages; the later they arrived, or the more densely populated or the more urbanised these colonies were, the fewer names were imposed. After the second world war, some colonial names were replaced by previous names in the indigenous languages.
Various areas are described in different periods from the point of view of their toponymic history. These individual cases form a synthesis of the toponymic aspects of the European expansion. (back)

Peter van der Krogt
The (New) Hollstein for map historians

[Caert-Thresoor 23 (2004) 1, pp. 15-20]

In this review-article the recent volumes of the Hollstein-series is discussed in respect to their value for the map historian. Emphasis is laid upon the work on the engravers family Van Doetecum. The conclusion is that except for the volumes on the Van Doetecums and Visschers, the series offers not much for the maphistorian. (back)

Aad de Klerk & Martijn Storms
Privately owned Farm Map Books from the province of Zeeland: A forgotten form of cultural heritage

[Caert-Thresoor 23 (2004) 2, pp. 29-35]

As a result of a symposium on estate atlases in 2001, the farm map books of Zeeland were rediscovered. Most of these small map books are privatly owned and are kept at home on the farm. In the 'Year of the Farm' (2003), the SCEZ (Foundation of Cultural Heritage in Zeeland) have found and exhibited about 50 of these records. Each farm map book shows one farming. These records seem to be typical for the province of Zeeland. In most cases the maps are drawn in an exercise-book. Although the books are not uniformal, most of them are set up in the same way. After the title page, a map of the farm with the yard, kitchen garden, orchard and house meadow is drawn. Then the other maps of single, or groups of, parcels, including area, length and land use are followed. Usually, the book is finished with a table of totals. Probably, the map books were used especially for the calculation of piece-wages of the labourers. For present-day research the importance of the farm map books lies in the micro topography. Beside that the books are an interesting source for field names and agricultural building history. The oldest known example is dated 1765. A picture of that record is shown on the cover of Caert-Thresoor this year. (back)

H.A.M. van der Heijden
The Batavian myth in cartography

[Caert-Thresoor 23 (2004) 2, pp. 37-41]

From Saturday 18th September 2004 through Sunday 9th January 2005, Museum Het Valkhof in Nijmegen will present an exhibition called 'De Bataven', showing the historical, archeological, literary and cartographical aspects concerning the Batavian people from the beginning of our age. An ample book publication on the subject will appear. As an introduction to the exhibition the present article gives a concise synopsisof the way the Batavians are shown in maps. (back)

Lowie Brink
A sea as black as the night. The geological school wall map of North Holland by W. Kloeke

[Caert-Thresoor 23 (2004) 2, pp. 42-47]

The colours in the geological school wall map Kaart van Noord-Holland (1888), especially the blackness of the seas, are very exceptional and give the map an unfamiliar appearance. Using existing topographic and geological maps as well as own observations, headmaster W. Kloeke designed a wall map with many details without overloading it. It will be shown how the ultimate realization of this map was influenced by three new developments in 19th-century cartography: school wall maps, colour lithography and geological maps. (back)

Willy Ahlers
Jacob van Deventer: New ideas and new questions

[Caert-Thresoor 23 (2004) 3, pp. 59-64]

Though Jacob van Deventer has often been featured in Caert-Thresoor, many questions still remain. He was an intelligent but retiring man, who may have been the inventor of triangulation. If we follow the sequence of the numbers of his city plans in both of his surviving atlases in Madrid and draw a route - for instance on the map by Wieder - we notice a seamless continuation between part two and part three of his atlases. In part three we notice two gaps after Coevorden and Lingen. I think these are the final cities of one season's survey. He then returned home to rework his collected data. Although the gaps in Belgium are much smaller another that is unexplained appears after Ieper, and this after only a few sketches. Maybe he became ill and had to interrupt his surveys.
Many articles have suggested an escape to Cologne; but when one has to fly one usually takes along one's wife and children. Because this didn't happen, could it have been for commercial reasons? This idea is supported by the fact that, in Cologne, Jacob van Deventer knew the cartographers Braun and Hogenberg who were very interested in his maps; and, after all, he was very badly paid by Philip II. For the moment, we have no answers. Indeed, new ideas generate new questions. (back)

Peter van der Krogt and Gyuri Danku
The Andreas Nagy atlas: an atlas factice of c. 1660

[Caert-Thresoor 23 (2004) 3, pp. 66-71]

During late 2003 and early 2004 the authors of this article had the opportunity to study an atlas factice in the private possession of a Hungarian. On the fly-leaf it has the inscription "Andreae Nagy 1763", hence the suggested name. The atlas includes 151 maps mostly by the Blaeu and the Hondius-Janssonius firms but also about 20 rather special maps. Among the latter are 12 by Cornelis Danckerts I, three by Dancker Danckerts, and three very early maps by Frederick de Wit. As the oldest dated maps are from 1657, and those of Blaeu do not show the characteristics of the Atlas Maior (1662), the atlas can be dated between 1657 and 1662. The compiler was probably a member of the Danckerts family. As an appendix to the article a full list is given of the maps in the atlas: in normal (roman) font those of Blaeu, in italics those of Hondius-Janssonius (all with the number from Koeman's Atlantes Neerlandici), and in bold the special maps. The Cornelis Danckerts maps are more fully described in Danku's article in this issue of Caert-Thresoor. (back)

Gyuri Danku
Twelve maps by Cornelis Danckerts I (1603-1656) in the Andreas Nagy atlas

[Caert-Thresoor 23 (2004) 3, pp. 72-79]

The Andreas Nagy atlas, an atlas factice of c. 1660 (see the article by Van der Krogt & Danku in this issue of Caert-Thresoor) includes twelve maps published by Cornelis Danckerts I. His maps can be distinguished from those of his grandson Cornelis Danckerts II by the date, if any, or by the map characteristics. Usually the maps of the grandson are larger, c. 45/49 x 56/58 in contrast to 36/40 x 46/50 cm those of Cornelis I. Since no good overview exists of Cornelis I's maps, all twelve in this atlas factice are illustrated here. The article concludes with an informative list of all maps published by Cornelis Danckerts I: this must be seen as a first attempt towards an overview of the complete oeuvre of this rather unknown Amsterdam map publisher. (back)

Lida Ruitinga and Martijn Storms
Fantasia Cartographica: mapping a world of fantasy

[Caert-Thresoor 23 (2004) 4, pp. 83-88]

Normally maps are models of spatial reality. Sometimes, however, maps can be products of fantasy. Fantasy maps, or imaginary maps, are part of the broader cartographic traditional of 'Fantasia Cartographica'. Besides fantasy maps, symbolic maps and mental maps (of real places) also belong to this tradition. In this article we distinguish four different types of imaginary maps, although there will be a certain overlap between these four types. First, there are maps that can be linked to folk legends or literary tradition, like the map of Tolkien's Middle-Earth. A second type is the allegorical map, which contains a symbolic or moralistic function: famous examples are the maps of Schlaraffenland and of Utopia. Didactic maps, a third type, are maps in which concepts, without any form of symbolism, are regulated: a modern form of this type depicts spatialisation. A didactic map can also function as a map. The fourth type may be called geofiction. Nowadays many people have as their hobby the invention of non-existing places, of which a famous Dutch example is Spocania. Even a travel guide to this imaginary land is published! These geofiction maps are often set within the real world; an alternative term for these maps could be pseudo-realistic. At the end of this article is added a list of the most famous imaginary maps with relevant literature. (back)

Marcel van den Broecke
Ortelius' Map of Utopia

[Caert-Thresoor 23 (2004) 4, pp. 89-93]

The existence of the Utopia map by Ortelius has been known for some time. But, of the 12 known printed copies, only one has so far surfaced; this was acquired by the author a couple of years ago. A facsimile of Ortelius' map of Utopia has been folded in this issue of Caert-Thresoor. Easily recognizable as a map by Ortelius, it shows a landscape of peace with rich resources, rivers, and several kinds of trees; generally it shows much more detail than other maps by Ortelius. A list with some 111 topographic names of utopian places and peoples, rivers and persons, together with a short explanation, concludes the article. But: Utopia means non-existing place and, despite the detail shown in the map, Utopia does not exist and never will. It is an ideal world that is easier to portray than to match with reality. Utopia thus is a contradictio in terminis. Although the map shows many details, these appear to be fantasy: cities without houses, rivers without boats and fishes, but always surrounded with pleasant and nice people; in other words, an unrealistic ideal. (back)

Franz Reitinger
A small student geography

[Caert-Thresoor 23 (2004) 4, pp. 95-102]

At the end of the 16th century, a typical iconography of academic life emerged in Germany and the Netherlands. Allegorical drawings were published in various student annuals. A first allegorical map in relation to student life in Germany is the 18th-century Studentengeographie. In 1802 a map of the Reich des Wissens appeared in Vienna in Reilly's Atlas von der moralischen Welt. In the early 19th century, as a response to radical changes at English universities, a more critical map of academic life was made. In this Oxford in Epitome is visualised life at the University of Oxford. This map was first published in 1819 and reprinted in 1832. The Dutch student W.C.M. Jonge van Ellemeet visited Oxford during a study excursion in 1833 and first saw this map, which inspired him to draw one of the academic life at his own university in Utrecht. The Kaart van het Stichtsche Academie-Land was first published in the Utrechtsche Studenten Almanak of 1834. These two maps can be considered as unique efforts in mapping everyday life at each of these two renowned universities. (back)

Laatst bijgewerkt door Peter van der Krogt