Tijdschrift voor de geschiedenis van de kartografie in Nederland
Four centuries ago, Abraham Ortelius, the famous inventor of the first 'modern' atlas, died in Antwerp. Not only this special event marks the year 1598, there were also other occurrences. For example, Cornelis Claesz. published the pocket-atlas Caert-Thresoor and Olivier van Noort left Amsterdam for his voyage around the world. Yet most of the attention in Belgium and The Netherlands will comprehensibly be paid to the commemoration of Ortelius through several exhibitions and publications. (back)
A pocket-atlas: Den Nederlandtschen Landtspiegel by Zacharias Heyns
[Caert-Tresoor 17(1998) 1, pp.5-8]
This booklet by Zacharias Heyns was published in Amsterdam in 1599. Heyns was a publisher, writer and member of the civil guard. He dedicated his small atlas to Jan Hendrik Oetgens, mayor and captain of a civil guard company in Amsterdam.
The book consists of contemporary maps of the Low Countries, accompanied by short rhymed descriptions of the territories concerned. The maps and the striking descriptions of the Low Countries, and their history as experienced by the contemporary people offer a unique insight into the manner of living of its sixteenth century inhabitants.
Heyns also succeeded in combining various disciplines -cartography, history and geography- in literary form. This should inspire present researchers to interdisciplinary cooperation in the field of the so-called artes literature. Artes literature comprises the following (medieval) subdivisions of learning. The artes liberales, including grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, music, geometry and astronomics; the artes mechanicae comprising all handicraft; and the artes magicae, the forbidden arts. Travel and cosmography were classified under the artes mechanicae. Heyns' publication belongs to the subcategory Cosmography of the artes literature: descriptions of cultures and countries, sometimes accompanied by maps. Many of these texts are to be found all over the world, awaiting scholarly research, preferably of an interdisciplinary nature. (back)
F.J. Ormeling Sr. naar Bernard Le Calloc'h
The voyages of Samuel van de Putte
[Caert-Tresoor 17(1998) 1, pp.11-14]
In Acta Geographica (1996, III, no. 107), the journal of the 'Société de Géographie' in Paris, an article by Bernard le Calloc'h pays attention to Samuel van de Putte, a Dutch geographical explorer in the 18th century. Van de Putte made several voyages to the Middle East, India, China, Tibet, Nepal and Malaya. There he drew for instance the first map of eastern Nepal and also a reliable map of the area at the east of Lhasa, Tibet's capital. It's worth rescueing Van de Putte from oblivion through this article in Caert-Thresoor. (back)
Henk van der Heijden
Again: the Fossa Eugeniana
[Caert-Tresoor 17(1998) 2, pp. 25-31]
Much has been written about the 'Fossa Eugeniana', the famous canal between the rivers Rhine and Meuse by means of which the Spaniards after the Twelve Years Truce (1609-1621) hoped to subdue the rebellious Dutch. Recently a detailed publication on the 'Fossa', dealing with all its aspects, appeared in Kevelaer. Besides, one of these days two maps of the 'Fossa' unknown to date turned up, throwing a new light on the whole project. The first one is a map of the Netherlands, published by Augustinus Bredim, Madrid, 1633; the second a small anonymous manuscript map, preserved in the 'Staatsarchiv' of Vienna. This enabled us, moreover, to complete the list of publications on the subject. (back)
Johannes A. Mol en Paul Noomen
The "Prekadastrale atlas fan Fryslân"
[Caert-Tresoor 17(1998) 2, pp. 33-37)
For most dutch provinces since five or more years the oldest cadastral maps and registers (1832) are being edited by provincial foundations. In Friesland, the Fryske Akademy is able to complement her editions of the municipal landsurveys of 1832 with a precadastral part. This Prekadastrale atlas van Friesland contains a documented cartographical reconstruction per parish of all landed property back to 1700 and 1640. The reconstruction is based on fiscal and farm-based voting registers, the socalled 'floreenkohieren' and 'stemkohieren', that have been completely preserved for the whole province since 1700 and 1640. These administrations can be linked to one another. What's more important however, is that they also can be connected to the cadastral one. That is because in the last series of 'floreenkohieren' (1848-1858), which after the Napoleontic period were continued for some decades, per farm and fiscal number the corresponding cadastral parcel information has been noted in the margin. The resulting reconstructions of landed property offer new material for historical-geographical and agrarian-historical research for the 17th an 18th centuries. As their information can be linked with earlier landregisters, they also give a good insight in the geographical aspects of the estates of the nobility and the church in the pre-Reformation period. By providing thus a structural geographical background for interpreting the scarce sources on medieval Frisia, they even open up new perspectives on medieval studies. (back)
J.C.N. Schrijver en L.A.M. Verbeek
The map collection of the Oudheidkamer Twente in Enschede
[Caert-Tresoor 17(1998) 3, pp. 53-58)
Twente is the region covering the eastern half of the province Overijssel of the Netherlands. The Oudheidkamer Twente was initiated in 1905 as a society with the purpose to enhance and promote the knowledge of the regional history of Twente. From the start it collected items related to the region, its inhabitants and its history and culture. Part of the collection consists of about 1,200 maps and atlases mostly related to Twente. They were obtained over the years by gifts and legacies.
About seventy maps and some atlases date from before 1800. These include several maps by Joan Blaeu and Nicolaas ten Have and atlases by Jacob Colom, Frederik de Wit and Willem Bachiene. There are quite a number of facsimile maps e.g. of Jacob van Deventer and Christiaan Sgrooten. After 1800, many maps were made for military and civilian purposes. The collection contains maps of Westfalia (Germany) and Overijssel and official military maps of Overijssel made after 1885. Quite a number of interesting maps of parts of Twente and especially Enschede are in the collection.
All maps have been described according to the rules for the Centrale Catalogus Kartografie (CCK) of the Royal Library in The Hague. The descriptions have been included in that catalogue and are hence accessible through it. The descriptions of all maps have also been printed on paper by the CCK and this catalogue is available in the Van Deinse Instituut. This institute takes care of the collection of the Oudheidkamer Twente. We also made our own computerprogram and database so that the descriptions of all maps in the collection can be looked up easily and quickly in the Van Deinse Instituut. Any person who is interested has access to the printed catalogue during the opening hours of the study room of the institute. Information on maps can also be obtained through the computer at the institute. (back)
Peter H. Meurer
The sale of Mercator's copperplates to Amsterdam in 1604
[Caert-Tresoor 17(1998) 3, pp. 61-66)
In literature, it is assumed that shortly after the last Atlas-editon of 1602, the heirs of Gerard Mercator were not able to continue the family-enterprise on a high standard any more. It is said that the copper plates together with the entire property of Mercator was auctioned in 1604 in Leyden and was acquired by Jodocus I Hondius. A new interpretation of the sources raises a surmise that this, in historical aspect very important, transaction had taken a different way, with the Amsterdam publisher Cornelis Claesz. as the central figure. (back)
Dirk de Vries
Two new attributions to Daniel van Breen: Maps of the Egmonder- and Bergermeer (1629)
[Caert-Tresoor 17(1998) 4, pp. 77-82).
Daniel van Breen (around 1599-1665) owes his name in Dutch cartography to about three maps to which his name as engraver ('plaatsnijder') is attached: two maps of the Beemster Polder (one of them in six sheets) and a map of the Lake of Haarlem. But not less known is a small sketchbook from his hand with detail drawings and notes, which contains the basic material for his very neatly and detailed handdrawn plan of the city of Beverwijk. It gives a unique insight in the fieldwork and the cartographic atelier of a 17th century mapmaker.
In this article is demonstrated that two hitherto anonymous manuscript maps in the Bodel Nijenhuis Collection (Leiden University Library) of the reclaimed Lakes of Bergen and Egmond, near Alkmaar, can be added to his oeuvre on the basis of similarities in handwriting and the use of an identical windarrow with crossline to indicate the orientation. The author even goes a step further by attributing the lettering of Dou's engraved map of the Seigniory of Bergen to Van Breen as well, also because of similarities in the style of writing. (back)
Arie de Zeeuw
A rare map of Gelderland with decorative borders published by Johannes Janssonius and Jodocus Hondius
[Caert-Tresoor 17(1998) 4, pp. 85-92)
In the first half of the 17th century, Johannes Janssonius and Jodocus Hondius together published a map of the former Duchy of Gelderland. The map has figured borders, and it has remained relatively unknown due to its rarity.
The map can be dated to around 1613, but it is difficult to decide to which generation(s) of the Janssonius and Hondius families the two publishers belonged. Were they Janssonius Sr (still alive in 1637) and Hondius Sr (died 1612)? Two details on the map seem to provide support for this supposition: the Grift Canal between Arnhem and Nijmegen, which was completed in 1610, and an incorrect silhouette of Arnhem. An identical outline of Arnhem can be found in some copies of the first printing of the first oblong edition of the Description de toutes les Pays-bas by Guicciardini, published by Johannes Janssonius Sr in Arnhem in 1613.
Of the map described in this article the author knows ten copies. Four of them show an impressum of Janssonius-Hondius, and on the other six there is no impressum. Faint traces show it to have been erased in the copper-plate. One copy with an impressum was printed without the figured borders, which had been covered on the plate by means of strips of paper. (back)