Tijdschrift voor de geschiedenis van de kartografie in Nederland
Journal for the history of cartography in the Netherlands

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Inhoud 15e jaargang (1996)
Contents of volume 15 (1996)

no. 1     no. 2     no. 3     no. 4

Caert-Thresoor 15e jaargang 1996, nr. 1

Caert-Thresoor 15e jaargang 1996, nr. 2

Caert-Thresoor 15e jaargang 1996, nr. 3

Caert-Thresoor 15e jaargang 1996, nr. 4


H.J. Nalis
Cresfeldt's map of the River IJssel from the middle of the 16th century

[Caert-Tresoor 15(1996) 1, pp.1-7]

In 1995 the Historical Museum of Deventer acquired a woodcut map of the river IJssel and its surroundings dating from the middle of the 16th century. The author is Martinus Carolus Cresfeldt, who originated from the county of Hessen (Germany) and who later worked as an arithmetician in the city of Deventer between 1555 and 1565. The map was probably published in the city of Deventer. One of the beams of the compasses has a singular mark, which is identical to the mark used by the famous Deventer engraver Jan van Doetecum. It is not certain, however, in which way Van Doetecum was involved in the production of the map. As far as we know Van Doetecum only worked as an etcher and as a copper engraver, not as a woodcutter. The names of the places on this river map are for a great deal similar to a map of Guelders, first published in 1563-1564 in Antwerp by Hieronymus Cock. (back)

Meindert Schroor
The 'Dresden Atlas': a collection of sixteenth-century town plans

[Caert-Tresoor 15(1996) 1, pp.15-17]

Military considerations gave an important impetus to the emergence and flourishing of cartography in the Low Countries. Jacob van Deventer's famous collection of about 250 plans of towns in the Netherlands originated from similar motives. Just recently another 16th century atlas containing 42 manuscript maps of 40 Dutch towns, villages and forts surfaced from the State Archive of Saxony in Dresden. They were presumably drawn between 1568 and 1585, the year that Antwerp fell definitively into Spanish hands. Some sixty percent of the plans apply to towns 'in Frisia', used here as a pars pro toto for the northeastern provinces. The remaining part refers to towns in the southern part of the Seventeen Provinces, which were all on the Spanish side or were soon to be conquered by the governor Alexander Farnese, the duke of Parma. This section is at first sight five to ten years younger than the Frisian plans. Most of these were drawn in or shortly before 1572, the year in which Caspar de Robles, the Spanish governor of the northeastern provinces and the Gueux (Sea Beggars) fought a fierce guerilla on Frisian territory. Eight maps are 'news maps' giving a bird's eye view of the hostilities between these adversaries. Research into this sixteenth century collection of maps by the author of this article will be financed by two Frisian foundations, the 'Ottema-Kingma Stichting' and the 'Boersma-Adema Fonds'. The State Archives in Friesland will publish the atlas in facsimile and will report the results of this investigation in the spring of 1997. (back)

Rodney Shirley
The contribution of the Dutch to the decorative cartographic titlepage

[Caert-Thresoor 15(1996)2, pp. 29-35]

The titlepages or frontispieces of atlases and other cartographic works often contain images and symbols of allegorical or topical significance. In this article Rodney Shirley describes how the decorative cartographic titlepage developed in Antwerp and then the Netherlands. The titlepage to Ortelius' Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Antwerp, 1570) provides one of the first allegorical representations of the four continents while successive titlepages to Guicciardini's Descrittione... di tutti Paesi Basse - initially from Antwerp and later from Amsterdam - are linked to political events in the turbulent years of the early 17th century.

Over 25 decorative titlepages are associated with the multi-part atlases produced by the rival Amsterdam publishing houses of Blaeu and Hondius-Janssonius between the 1630s and the 1660s, and these are summarised in an Appendix. Among many fine titlepages to Dutch maritime atlases are those of the parts of the Zee-Atlas and Zee-Fakkel by the Van Keulens, all replete with allegorical and symbolical detail. Another well-known name, as etcher and engraver, is that of Romeyn de Hooghe.

In the 18th century Dutch cartographic output declined, with ascendancy moving to the French who embraced lighter, rococo, designs. However, there are many detailed pictorial titlepages still to be found among Dutch books of geography, history, topography and travel until, by the late 18th century, more functional titlepages predominated. (back)

René M. Haubourdin
The early history and expenditure of the Krayenhoff-map of the Netherlands during the Batavian Republic 1798-1806

[Caert-Thresoor 15(1996)2, pp. 38-45]

The origins of the map of the Netherlands made by Krayenhoff (1758-1840) during the Dutch Batavian Republic, founded by the Patriots after the revolution of 1795 against the Stadholder William V, are discussed. Research of the financial documents of this period preserved in archives at the Algemeen Rijksarchief at the Hague, which were never studied before, enables a more detailed historical reconstruction of the Krayenhoff-map in 1798-1806. In 1798 a new national map was ordered by the Patriotic representatives of the National Assembly, redrawing the administrative bounderies of the old provinces integrated in the central state. Although the mapmaking started in 1798 as a six months project and at low budget, it took Krayenhoff almost 25 years to finish the map and at much greater expenses then he had promised the Assembly at the beginning. The publication of the map was delayed because of the new triangulation in 1801-1811 and several misfortunes. The finance was limited due to budgetary deficits and the compilation-method used to make the new map from old exiting maps proved difficult because these latter ones lacked.

However the first sheet was completed in 1804, and not in 1809 thusfar known from literature, but unfortunatly printed on paper of very poor quality. As Krayenhoff's request for new printing paper was refused the map was not published before the end of the Batavian Republic in 1806. Between 1798 and 1806 a group of 40 surveyors, engineers and scientist worked on the map for director Krayenhoff, paid by the ministry of the interior. In 1807 the mapmaking, which started as a civil project, was transferred to the military of the War-departement when Krayenhoff became head of the Dutch Topographical Service. In total Hfl. 105.000,- was spent on the map in 1798-1806, which was not a very profitable venture as no maps were printed nor sold before 1809. Fortunately Krayenhoff was never questioned for his expenses because most of the representatives who had commisioned the map in 1798 were removed from the Assembly in a coup d'etat in 1801. Only Patriot Leemans, who had supported the Krayenhoff-map from the start in 1798, stayed in office and guaranteerd the finances of the project until 1806. After 1806 king Louis Napoleon and from 1814 king William I supported the Krayenhoff-map with new subsidies, so that the map was finally completed in 1823. If map-sales after its publication in 1823 made the whole project such a profit as Krayenhoff had promised in 1798, needs more research of the financial documents to make a profit and loss account. (back)

Charles van den Heuvel
An atlas for Gilles de Berlaymont, Baron of Hierges

Views of Sieges, townplans and fortification designs for a soldier-nobleman (1570-1578)
[Caert-Thresoor 15(1996)3, pp. 57-69]

An album bought by the antiquarian bookseller Israel Rare Books/A. Asher&Co. B.V., containing 50 finely drawn manuscript town and fortification plans and views in the Netherlands, Mediterranean and Central Europe partially dated between 1570 and 1575, was probably commissioned by the Walloon nobleman Gilles de Berlaymont after a successful career as Stadholder in the Netherlands, first in 1572 of Gelderland, Overijssel, Groningen and Lingen and from 1574 onwards of Utrecht, Holland and Zeeland, as governor of Namur and Artois and finally as a financial adviser to Don Juan until his death in 1579. The atlas is on the one hand a memory of his military enterprises in the Netherlands where he conquered many Dutch cities for the Spanish king, and on the other hand can be seen as a reflection of the interests of the courtier who wanted to show off his knowledge of sieges and of modern fortifications. The hypothesis is put forward that the atlas has been made, with the help of drawings and prints of the collections of Chiappino Vitelli, Gabrio Serbelloni and of the Administration of the Finances in Brussels, by an artist in the circle of the famous sculptor and court-architect Jacques Dubroeucq at the end of his career who, according to his successor Pierre Lepoivre "architect et geographe de Sa Majesté", also had made representations of fortifications in the Southern Netherlands. The research of Dr. van den Heuvel has been made possible by a fellowship of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. (back)

Henk Schaftenaar
The War-game-map of Amersfoort and its surroundings

[Caert-Thresoor 15(1996)3 (pp. 71-72)]

The Topographische Inrichting made in the second half of the 19th and in the early 20th century several maps with an educational militairy goal. The Krijgsspelkaart van Amersfoort and Omgeving (scale 1:10.000) is one of these. It is a very detailed map and presents an enourmous lot of important (historical-)geographical information. Research learned that it was compiled in the period 1907-1913 and that twohundred copies of this map in twentysix coloured sheets had been printed. (back)

Peter van der Krogt
The Mercator Years 1994 and 1995: a review

[Caert-Thresoor 15(1996)4 (pp. 89-97) & Kartografisch Tijdschrift 22(1996)3, pp. 17-25]

In 1994 it was 400th anniversary of Gerard Mercator's death, in 1995 it was the 400th anniversary of the publication of Mercator's Atlas. Exhibitions with catalogues, books, symposiums and more frivolous activities: everything was done several times. The subject Mercator had already the largest number of titles in the 1993 Bibliography of the History of Cartography of the Netherlands; in 1994 and 1995 dozens of more or less valuable titles are added. In this personal review some clarity is created in the chaos of publications. In the article reviews are presented of the exhibitions and publications, in the annex first the separate publications are listed (I-XIX), secondly the 124 individual contributions in those publications are presented in a systematic way: A. The more general contributions (A1 biographical, A2 philosophical and cosmological, A3 theological, A4 cartographical, A5 the astrolabes), B. Contributions on Mercator's individual works and C. Mercator collections. The full list is on this website. (back)

C.W. Hesselink-Duursma
The map collection of the regional archives Hollands Midden in Gouda

[Caert-Thresoor 15(1996)4 (pp. 99-104)]

The map collection has not been created on purpose as a special collection. The manuscript maps cover the history of Gouda with especial reference to matters concerning canal maintenance and of economic importance. The oldest map dates from 1498. Worth mentioning is a manuscript map from 1613 made by Henrick Vos, a precursor of the cadastral map.
The town library (Librije) was founded in 1594 after the fall of the monasteries. The core of the collection comes from St. Janskerk, the monastery of the Collatiebroeders and the Stein monastery. From 1612 with the appointment of library directors, the library was properly managed and expanded. There is a valuable collection of atlases, amongst which are the nine volumes of the atlas of Blaeu. The oldest atlas, a post-incunabulum, dates from 1525. Beside the city maps of the 17th and 18th century there are also modern city maps from 1867. Cadastral maps from 1828 give a general view of the historical development of the town and surroundings. Also worth mentioning is the river map of the Hollandsche IJssel, one of the first colour lithographs. After the extension of its building the regional archives possess modern depots, amongst which a depot of maps. There is a special reference room where up to 24 people can study the maps and documents, which are directly accessed using the database program askSam. (back)

© Caert-Thresoor and Peter van der Krogt