Tijdschrift voor de geschiedenis van de kartografie in Nederland
Journal for the history of cartography in the Netherlands

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Inhoud 12e jaargang (1993)
Contents of volume 12 (1993)

no. 1     no. 2     no. 3     no. 4

Caert-Thresoor 12e jaargang 1993, nr. 1


Caert-Thresoor 12e jaargang 1993, nr. 2

Caert-Thresoor 12e jaargang 1993, nr. 3

Caert-Thresoor 12e jaargang 1993, nr. 4


Marc Hameleers
'Vier eeuwen Amsterdamse buurten in kaart': Large scale maps in the Municipal Archives of Amsterdam

[Caert-Tresoor 12(1993) 1, pp. 1-9]

Which large scale maps are useful when doing historical research on the City of Amsterdam?
This article discusses large scale maps which have been made of the city of Amsterdam from 1544 until now and which have been preserved in its Gemeentearchief (Municipal Archives). For the period up to the end of the 17th century, very detailed maps are not available for all districts of the city. In that case the researcher has to turn to the different editions of maps on less detailed scale. The maps most used and best known are those which have been engraved by Cornelis Anthonisz. (1544), Pieter Bast (editions of 1597, 1599, [1606], [1606-1617]) and Balthasar Florisz. (editions of 1625, 1647, 1657).
From the beginning of the 18th century for thirtyfive out of sixty districts 'burgerwijk-' or 'schutterswijk-'maps are available. These maps are very detailed too. A detail of such a map can be seen on the Caert-Thresoor cover of this year. Of course there are also several thousands of maps available all showing a part of the city. But these maps do not form a series. Examples are drawn in estate-atlases which were made by several institutes in the period from 1559 to the middle of the 18th century. Others have been published in reports of the department of Public Affairs of the city. Quite a lot of 'incidentally preserved maps' can also be found in private archives. In the 19th century cadastral maps as well as three very detailed atlasses (1850, [1853-1875], 1876) can be used. A problem researchers may face is that the housenumbers changed several times in the third part of the 19th century. The nineteenth century atlasses might be a help in solving this problem.
For the 20th century, several types of very detailed map series are available. Apart from the cadastral maps, the maps of the city departments of 'Bouw- & Woningtoezicht' as well as the Topographical Survey of the city of Amsterdam, can be used. Over the next years the mapcurator of the Gemeentearchief of Amsterdam intends to make all maps available for the public by 35 millimeter microfiches. From 26 February until 8 April 1993 an exhibition which has as its theme the large scale maps will be held in the Gemeentearchief of Amsterdam (Amsteldijk 67, Amsterdam). (back)

Betsy Dokter, Marc Hameleers, Lida Ruitinga & Jan Werner
Searching for maps of Amsterdam

[Caert-Tresoor 12(1993) 1, pp. 11-16]

An investigation was done as to the listing of specific information of Amsterdam maps. Subject of investigation were plans of the city as a whole, as well as maps of parts of the town, map series of Amsterdam and map series of The Netherlands in which Amsterdam is included with one or more sheets. First of all librarians of map collections in Amsterdam which were mentioned by C. Koeman in his Collections of Maps and Atlases in The Netherlands (1961) and in A. van Slobbe's Gids voor Kaartenverzamelingen in Nederland (1981) were asked for up-to-date information on the Amsterdam part of their collection. Furthermore, material was added from important collections outside Amsterdam such as the University Library of Leyden and Algemeen Rijksarchief (State Archives) in The Hague. (back)

Danielle de Loches Rambonnet
Water circulation in 18th century Amsterdam

[Caert-Tresoor 12(1993) 1, pp. 17-19]

Three early thematic plans of Amsterdam, dating from ca. 1734, show the water circulation system of 18th century Amsterdam. Because the river Amstel was a very slowstream river it could not contribute sufficiently to the cleansing of the canals. Moreover the canal system was so dirty that the Amstel was in real danger of pollution. In order to prevent this, the river was protected against the salty and polluted canal water since 1673 and, as the plans show, the cleansing of the canals resulted from circulation only. The circulation was effected by the opening and closing of specific sluices at high and low tide. (back)

C.J.M. Brugman
The accuracy of four plans of Amsterdam

[Caert-Tresoor 12(1993) 1, pp. 21-26]

Numerical comparison between points on old maps and exact geographic coordinates from recent topographic maps is a matter of tensor calculus. However, lack of computer-capacity or even the absence of software approriate for such extensive computation demand a simpler approach to the problem. The well-known method of the principle of least sqaures has been applid to four old maps of the city of Amsterdam in order to gain some insight into the accuracy of these maps. Regression lines from both te radius r and the angle f on corresponding values for the polar coordinates taken from a standard map of the city, lead to conclusions about deformation of the grid of the older maps. Furthermore, the method has the advantage of allowing reconstruction of objects of topographic interest, the location of which has been lost and cannot be found on recent maps. (back)

Ron Guleij
Maps and documents belonging to the archive of the Netherlands Hydrographic Office

[Caert-Tresoor 12(1993) 2, pp. 33-39]

The year 1874 may be regarded as the official date of birth of the Netherlands Hydrographic Office. After 1874 developments take place wich inaugurates a new period in hydrographic cartography. Systematisation and later internationalisation of hydrographical research are typical for this period. It also gives a retrospective view of the hydrographic history before 1874 and the history of the archives which were transferred to the General State Archives. Finally the contents and structure of several mapseries and related hydrographic documents of the archive - wich consists of more than 12,500 sheets - is described. Since the archive is deposited in the General State Archive in The Hague it is possible to get a complete overview of the production of Dutch charts from the 16th century until the present day. (back)

P.G. Hoftijzer
The Leiden bookseller Pieter van der Aa (1659-1733) and his cartographical publications

[Caert-Tresoor 12(1993) 3, pp. 53-58]

This article studies the low-rated production of maps and atlases by the Leiden bookseller Pieter van der Aa (1659-1733) not from a cartographic but from a bookhistorical point of view. Although Van der Aa's publishing activities at first were aimed at an academic clientele, he soon entered the market for more popular books on history, travel and geography. Having acquired a large stock of maps, prints and copperplates from various Amsterdam publishers to insert in his publications or sell separately and not having too many scruples about copying and pirating the work of other publishers, he was able to build an attractive publishing list. The same strategy he developed in his cartographic production by issuing maps and atlases for a wide, non-professional public, thus undercutting the Amsterdam publishers, who virtually had held a monopoly in Dutch cartography since the early seventeenth century. (back)

Peter van der Krogt
A Blaeu-Hondius and a Hondius-Blaeu atlas

[Caert-Tresoor 12(1993) 3, pp. 59-61]

In the collections of the Kultur- und Stadthistorisches Museum Duisburg two odd Dutch atlases are present. Both are variants of the German edition of the Mercator-Hondius atlas of 1633 (Koeman, Me 37). The atlas with cat.no. 78:28 has a new German title Atlas Novus, in which two parts are mentioned. The two parts are bound in one volume. The second part is a proof edition of Blaeu's Ander Theil Novi Atlantis (Bl 6). The other atlas, cat.no. 75:661, has a German imprint of Willem Blaeu. The existence of these atlases may suggest some co-operation between the two concurrents Hondius and Blaeu in the early 1630s. However, these alterations might have been made in a later time. (back)

J.C. Visser
Jacob van Deventer alias van Campen? The early years of an imperial-royal geographer

[Caert-Tresoor 12(1993) 3, pp. 63-67]

Very little is known about the life of Jacob van Deventer (c. 1500-1575), particularly about his youth. New material in the municipal archives of Kampen and Deventer enables us to shed some more light on the early years of the cartographer. From this material we gather that Jacob van Deventer was not born in Deventer, but in Kampen, shortly after 1500. His mother Anna and her young son lived in the house of her brother-in-law Dirk van de Gronde alias Tripmaker, who was a rich beer brewer and an influential man in the town. At Jacob's birth his mother was not married. It was not until 1510 that she married a brewer from Deventer called Roelof. The young couple and Jacob went to Deventer, where Jacob attended the Latin School. Its rector Mr. Johan Poortvliet was at the same time the city doctor. On April 24th 1520, Jacob van Deventer enrolled as student in the University of Leuven; it is possible that he started off as a medical student. His mother's family was well-to-do, and it is likely that Dirk van de Gronde supported his nephew Jacob during his Deventer school years and his further studies at Leuven University. (back)

W.F.J. Mörzer Bruyns
Four maps of the world: The world drawn on vellum c. 1650 by Johannes Vingboons

[Caert-Tresoor 12(1993) 4, pp. 73-80]

De Dutch draughtsman, designer and engraver Johannes Vingboons (1616/17?1670) made charts, maps and illustrations for cartographers of the Dutch East India Company, such as Joan Blaeu. He also worked independently for wealthy collectors in the Netherlands and abroad. Among the latter were Christina of Sweden and Cosimo III de Medici. The main body of his work can now be found in collections in Florence, Rome, Vienna and The Hague. The importance of his cartographical work was first recognised by F.C. Wieder around 1925. The four wall maps subject of this article were drawn on vellum around 1650 and depict the entire world as known at the time. Although several Dutch wall maps of that period have survived, examples drawn on vellum are extremely rare. The cartography of Vingboons' maps is mainly based on Joan Blaeu's map of the world of 1645-46. They include recent Dutch discoveries, by Abel Tasman of Van Diemensland and New Zealand, by Gerrit Vries of the Kurile Islands near Japan and the results of Hendrick Brouwer's circumnavigation of Staten Island near Terra del Fuego. The four maps were purchased by the Swedish collector and diplomat Claes Rålamb (1622-1698), probably directly from Vingboons, around 1650. As a set of four they were still in the Rålamb family when Leo Bagrow discovered them in 1948. They remained in the Rålamb family until auctioned in 1992 and acquired by the Scheepvaartmuseum in Amsterdam. (back)

F. Westra
Do there exist military maps or fortification-plans made by Simon Stevin?

[Caert-Tresoor 12(1993) 4, pp. 82-86]

Simon Stevin is considered to be one of the most famous engineers in the Dutch Republic during the Eighty Years War. It is therefore rather peculiar that no signed manuscript maps by Stevin have survived the ages. Nevertheless there have been many assumptions about maps drawn by Stevin. The great Dutch historian of fortifications, Schukking, surmised that maps of The Hague and Harderwijk could have been made by Stevin. Further research indicates however, that the map of The Hague was probably drawn in 1603 by the totally unknown engineer Hans van Groll and that the map of Harderwijk stems from the year 1621, which dates from after Stevin's death. More complicated is the map about the military operations around 's-Hertogenbosch (1603) which seems to have been made by him, but has no genuine signature. This is probably a copy of an original by Stevin.
In the archives of the States-General in The Hague recently a map has been found from the fortifications at IJzendijke (Zeeland), which were to be erected in the years 1604-1605. This map, according to its legenda, was, one detail left alone, similar to a map that was devised by Stevin about the same fortifications. In this way we now have more proof about Stevin's ideas about fortifications in practice. (back)

© Caert-Thresoor and Peter van der Krogt