Tijdschrift voor de Geschiedenis van de Kartografie
Journal for the history of cartography in the Netherlands

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Inhoud 36e jaargang (2017)
Contents of volume 36 (2017)

no. 1     no. 2      no. 3     no. 4

Caert-Thresoor 36e jaargang 2017, nr. 1

Caert-Thresoor 36e jaargang 2017, nr. 2

Caert-Thresoor 36e jaargang 2017, nr. 3

Special Indië


Gijs Boink & Martijn Storms
'I am very influenceable'. Interview with Bram Vannieuwenhuyze

[Caert-Thresoor 36 (2017) 1, pp. 3-9]

Since 1 September 2015 Bram Vannieuwenhuyze has been professor, by special appointment, of the history of cartography at the University of Amsterdam. On 18 March 2016 we interviewed the new professor, on the condition to publish it after his inaugural lecture that took place at 23 September 2016. Bram Vannieuwenhuyze was born in the Brussels suburb of Anderlecht. There his fascination for the relation between city and countryside grew. At Ghent University he graduated with a thesis on medieval Brussels. In 2008 he received his doctoral degree on a thesis on the spatial development of Brussels. As part of his PhD he developed a method of 'digital thematic deconstruction' for old maps. His weekly sixteen hour appointment in Amsterdam is a combination of education and research projects. In collaboration with Peter van der Krogt he gives lecture series on maps and atlases. His own in-progress research projects include book on Jacob van Deventer's town plans, historical town atlases, history maps, and historical roads in the landscape. Succeeding Günter Schilder, Vannieuwenhuyze admits he is very influenceable. Only by talking with his predecessor and others and reading his works, the landscape-historical approach of Vannieuwenhuyze merges with more map-historical approaches in which the map is an object of study in itself. Furthermore, Vannieuwenhuyze stresses the importance of cataloguing and digitising of map collections. (back)

Vivienno Frank
The first large-scale map of Aruba and its use

[Caert-Thresoor 36 (2017) 1, pp. 10-14]

When under control of the Dutch West India Company the island of Aruba was not permitted for settlement, as it was reserved for ranching. After transfer to Dutch administration, colonization started in the nineteenth century, especially when gold was discovered in the 1820s, which initiated a boom period. The government granted land as feudal hereditary concessions to the colonists, so that they could become self-sufficient. Although each concession was surveyed, no maps were made at the time. In the beginning of the twentieth century the government realized the need for maps and had all land grants, as they were used, surveyed and mapped out by Hensie and Johan Beaujon. The resulting map series 1:2.500, named the 'Domain map', was used by government departments for taxes, land use administration, spatial planning and many other purposes. (back)

Peter van der Krogt, Madelon Simons & Reinder Storm
Atlas Tytel-Print collectie Van Loon. A donation to the Special Collections of the University of Amsterdam

[Caert-Thresoor 36 (2017) 1, pp. 15-21]

A major donation by the collector Gerard van Loon to the Special Collections of the University of Amsterdam consists of loose title-pages and decorative engravings, originating from more than five hundred atlases and other geographical works of the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries. It deals specifically with the lavishly-engraved title-page to the atlas by De Ram (Amsterdam, 1685), and demonstrates the importance of the donation from different perspectives. (back)

Peter Meurer
Father Gerhard Sommer's Missions-Atlas der Oblaten (Valkenburg 1947-1950)

[Caert-Thresoor 36 (2017) 1, pp. 22-27]

In 1816 the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate was founded in Aix-en-Provence. After this Order was banned in France in 1880, its northern French province found refuge in Limburg (Netherlands). The order settled at Ravensbosch estate near Valkenburg. Father Gerhard Sommer compiled a mission atlas of the Oblates for internal use, especially for education. The atlas consists of 69 maps of the Order's mission regions. Two editions of this rare atlas exist, both with the year 1947 on the title page. However, the first, preliminary edition was probably published in the first half of 1949. The second, final edition with descriptions added to the maps, was printed in the beginning of 1950. We can conclude that the Missions-Atlas der Oblaten is a unique work on the topography of this Order. Art teacher Gerhard Sommer did his utmost with the design of the maps, but his standards fall far short of those expected in modern cartography. (back)

Marco van Egmond
An image of the world between 1877 and 1939: pre-War editions of De Bosatlas online

[Caert-Thresoor 36 (2017) 2, pp. 39-44]

By far the most important school atlas of the Netherlands is De Bosatlas, named after its first editor Pieter Roelf Bos (1847-1902). 0 This atlas first appeared in 1877, and 55 editions have been published until now. In co-operation with the publishing company Noordhoff and Amsterdam University Library, Utrecht University Library recently digitized all 36 pre-Second World War editions of De Bosatlas, offering online access to them. In a digital exhibition (bc.library.uu.nl/bos-atlases-mapping-world-1877-1939) each edition is accompanied by a scientific commentary, describing the historical context and the differences from its predecessor. In this way the users of the website – primarily high school pupils – will discover the way the Dutch in general, and the atlas editors in particular, viewed the world in the past, as well as the changes in those views and attitudes as reflected in the maps and in the atlases' structure. As such, a new online historical atlas has come into being, allowing users to see the changes in our knowledge of the world resulting from marine and terrestrial exploration, and to grasp the changes in the world itself due to urbanization, armed conflicts, and constructions of infrastructure. To facilitate comparing the different editions of De Bosatlas, a special viewer was developed. With this viewer the monitor screen is subdivided, having two map images from subsequent editions side by side. Simultaneous zooming is possible, and a commentary clarifies the changes. Furthermore users can intuitively browse through multiple editions of De Bosatlas. (back)

Roel Nicolai
The unknown origin of portolan charts

[Caert-Thresoor 36 (2017) 2, pp. 45-52]

Portolan charts are realistic and detailed nautical charts of the Mediterranean and Black Seas which appeared suddenly in Italy in the 13th century. One of the most remarkable characteristics of these charts is their close resemblance to a modern map on the Mercator projection. The author analysed five charts as part of his PhD research using quantitative geodetic and statistical techniques. The results are surprising. The charts are demonstrated to be more accurate than has been assumed until now and are shown to be mosaics of five to ten sub-charts, some of which have considerable overlaps. Nicolai's analysis also shows that the map projection can only be an intentionally applied design feature of the original charts. These charts are not the simple, medieval maps they have been believed to be until now. They are quite sophisticated and cannot be medieval. Their origin must lay considerably further back in time. (back)

Ester Smit
Stripped from the back: discovery of unknown map of Kattelaar castle

[Caert-Thresoor 36 (2017) 2, pp. 53-58]

Generally, if we look at a map, the front (recto) is the most important side; but, on rare occasions, the back (verso) is interesting too. At the Historisch Centrum Overijssel (from former Zwolle Archives), an exciting event happened when an old map on the back of the main map was discovered. In 1991, in order to properly conserve a map made by Johan Muller in 1726, old pieces of paper on the verso were removed. Digitized and stitched together in a computer programme, they gave birth to a new document. Surprisingly, the removed strips and scraps showed another map: trees, a river, names and a building, surrounded by canals. These canals are drawn in a strange manner. The river is named the Regge, and there was only one castle with such a strange canal: Kattelaar. The pieces of stripped paper from the map's verso are more or less from 1765. If we look at nineteenth-century maps, and the digitized map, it shows us that the canals and the outline plan of Kattelaar castle didn't change for centuries. This might be a small detail but, for an investigator or an historian, this information can be very interesting: by stitching together the digitized paper pieces, a new map with older information about Kattelaar becomes available. The site of Kattelaar is nearby the river Regge. Nothing of the castle remains except one building, the so-called and now inhabited 'bouwhuis' (storehouse) – the square building on the 'new' map. There are some old trees, which show us Kattelaar's former canal. But now we additionally have this 'new' old map. (back)

Theo van Veenendaal
The map of Overijssel by Ten Have (1648) and it's copies by Visscher and De Wit: A MapAnalyst examination

[Caert-Thresoor 36 (2017) 2, pp. 59-69]

In 1648, Nicolaas ten Have published a new map of the Dutch province of Overijssel. It was the first map made with newly acquired material since the map of Jacob van Deventer of 1543. Claes Jansz. Visscher made a copy of the map of Ten Have in 1648 and Frederik De Wit did the same somewhere around 1667. The question answered in this article is on which previous maps De Wit and Visscher based their own maps and how similar their maps are compared to each other and the map of Ten Have. This question is answered and presented with MapAnalyst, a software program designed to analyse the planimetrical accuracy of old maps by comparing them to a present-day map. This case study offers an alternative use of MapAnalyst in the research of which sources are used for a map. A suggestion is presented to form a family tree of maps to visualize the links between different maps. The answer that is given by the analysis is that the map of Visscher is a complete copy of the map of Ten Have, with a small but evenly spread divergence. The map of De Wit is an exact, but partial copy of the Overijssel-map of Visscher. But De Wit has based the Gelderland-part of the map on a different map of Visscher. (back)

Günter Schilder
The cartographic workshop of the VOC in Batavia

[Caert-Thresoor 36 (2017) 3, pp. 83-91]

In the early period an equipagemeester, in charge of equipping vessels with the necessary general supplies, was also responsible for checking the incoming ship's journals and drawings, copying relevant material for forwarding to the Netherlands. The first reliable indication of an independent cartographic workshop in Batavia originates from 1688: a complete inventory is reported, where a baas-kaartenmaker (chief/head chart-maker) was running the kaartmakerswinckel (chart production and supply shop). This inventory lists the charts needed for ships returning to Holland as well as those required for intra-Asian shipping. New surveys from the various factories arrived here; existing charts were updated and then delivered to the home-bound fleet. The baas-kaartenmaker was assisted by a varying number of cartographers and draughtsmen. Experienced pilots, who were qualified by their practical exposure in nautical matters, were often appointed to that function, as they could also personally lead surveying voyages into sometimes fairly unknown waters. (back)

Lodewijk Wagenaar
A close look at three overview maps of Ceylon made in the years 1681-1690

[Caert-Thresoor 36 (2017) 3, pp. 93-101]

In the 1680s the Amsterdam cartographers and publishers Johannes van Keulen (1654-1715) and Nicolaas Visscher II (1649-1702) each launched an overview map of the island of Ceylon (in 1972 renamed to Sri Lanka). The map by Van Keulen was a so-called chart or, in Dutch, pascaert. The second was a remarkably detailed map with all Dutch fortresses, entrenchments and minor stations marked with little Dutch flags. In the period of publication of this map the Dutch East India Company (VOC) did not possess all forts as indicated by these flags. On the contrary, most forts situated inland and along the east coast then were firmly in the hands of the interior kingdom of Kandy. Therefore, one may wonder what source Visscher had at his disposal. Unmistakably it must have been the manuscript map kept in the Dutch National Archives (VELH 326). Lodewijk Wagenaar, a specialist in the history of Sri Lanka's Dutch Period, invites the reader to look closely at historic maps to better understand the past: in this case, of Sri Lanka. Even though many manuscript maps have been handed down without too much information about author and date, precise research can offer unexpected clues that bring us to new insights about lost contexts of such material. The manuscript map discussed here must have been commissioned by Rijcklof van Goens senior, or his son and successor Rijcklof van Goens junior, either during the first stage of the war against the kingdom of Kandy (1665-1670) or somewhat later, but certainly before 1679 – the year of the latter's dismissal and the beginning of the new appeasement policy towards Kandy executed by governor Laurens Pijl. The map published after 1681 by Nicolaas Visscher, of which the Royal Library (KB) in The Hague keeps a fine coloured exemplar, clearly shows that private Amsterdam mapmakers made use of maps from the secret collection of the VOC. In this case, however, it is also apparent that Visscher did not update the information he had; hence, at the time of publication, his map was obsolete in many details. (back)

Ferjan Ormeling
The topographic survey of the Netherlands East Indies, Batavia 1864-1949

[Caert-Thresoor 36 (2017) 3, pp. 102-113]

y 1864 the mapping brigades of the Engineering corps of the Royal Netherlands Indies Army were given separate status directly under the General Staff, and this milestone was later regarded as the starting point of the Topographic Survey of the Netherlands East Indies, the Topografische Dienst. In 1939, when the 75th anniversary of the Survey was celebrated, large scale topographic maps at scales larger than or equal to 1:100.000 had been produced of the whole archipelago, with the exception of the scarcely inhabited primeval jungle in Borneo and New Guinea. By 1886 the mapping of Java had been completed in combination with a land-use survey as well as the triangulation of Java, thus allowing the surveyors to start on the outer isles. Their work up till then, the production of a topographic map of Java at the scale 1:100.000, had, thanks to the printing expertise of the Topographical Survey in the Netherlands, fetched more prizes at world exhibitions than any other map product before WWI. Reactions by the main customer, the army, were less positive: the combined representation of the terrain and of over 15 land-use classes did not allow for an easy interpretation of the terrain forms and slopes. Big printing delays and distribution problems did not help either. However, around the turn of the century these problems were more or less solved: a better terrain representation, a more sensible sheet subdivision system and local printing had been effected, resulting in a timelier provision of the map material. In the 20th century a training brigade, a triangulation brigade and, from the 1920s onwards, a photogrammetry brigade were added - signs of an increasing professionalization, cut short by the Japanese occupation in 1942. By 1946 the Survey was under Dutch control again but, due to wartime activities on Java, only mapping programmes on the outer Islands were engaged in. In June 1950, the survey was transferred to the Indonesian authorities. (back)

Paul van den Brink
Destruction of cartographic capital: the Encyclopaedic Bureau for the Outer Possessions, 1909-1921

[Caert-Thresoor 36 (2017) 3, pp. 114-122]

In the cartographic development of the Dutch East Indies in the 19th and 20th centuries various phases can be identified, all of which relate to the institutional development of the Dutch colonial government. Until the third part of the 19th century this governance was mainly restricted to the island of Java that, since the period of the [United] East India Company, served as the colony's administrative centre. From the third quarter of the 19th century, however, there was a clear shift in this process in the sense that the area outside Java – the so-called Outer Possessions – were connected geographically and cartographically to the traditional colonial domain. This process was particularly triggered by the forceful conduct of Governor-General Joannes Benedictus van Heutsz who, between 1904 and 1909, united the Indonesian Archipelago into a cohesive colonial empire. This article deals with the cartographic efforts of the Encyclopaedic Bureau that was founded in 1909 on the instigation of Van Heutsz. Led by the military geographer Louis van Vuuren (1873-1951), and by way of the systematic collection, editing and publication of mainly unknown geographical and cartographical sources, Van Vuuren and his team laid a powerful scientific base for the cartographical presentation of the Outer Provinces. Due to the short-sighted political attitude of later Governors-General and the financial cutbacks they introduced to colonial politics, the scientific merits of the Encyclopaedic Bureau were almost fully lost after the 1920s. (back)

Ron Guleij
The charting of the Dutch East Indian Archipelago by the Hydrographic Service

[Caert-Thresoor 36 (2017) 3, pp. 123-131]

For a long time hydrography in the East was concentrated on Java. As a result of accidents and loss of cargoes they slowly realized that systematic charting was also required beyond Javanese waters. The first attempts were made for this purpose in the early 19th century. The hydrographic business in the East knew a lot of organizational changes and relocations. The year 1874 may be regarded as the official date of birth of the Netherlands Hydrographic Office. Post-1874 developments inaugurated a new period in hydrography and cartography. Systematization and later internationalization of hydrographical research typify this period. (back)

Gijs Boink
'Undecided discord': the difficult transfer of the map collection of the Dutch Ministry of Colonial Affairs

[Caert-Thresoor 36 (2017) 3, pp. 132-138]

From 1963 the 'map library' of the former Dutch Ministry of Colonial Affairs was the subject of disagreement between Leiden University Library and the National Archives in The Hague. The two institutions reached an agreement, only in 1994, about the distribution and management of the over 7.000 colonial maps. This article outlines the history of the discord. (back)

Laatst bijgewerkt op 2017-09-09