Tijdschrift voor de Geschiedenis van de Kartografie
Louis Raemaekers' Satirical Map of Europe from 1914
[Caert-Thresoor 33 (2014) 1, pp. 3-8]
Louis Raemaekers was the most famous Dutch political cartoonist of the early 20th century. After the German invasion of Belgium on 4 August 1914 he embraced the Allied cause and, through his subsequent anti-German cartoons, he was better known in Great Britain and France than in his native Holland. Shortly before the Great War he published a single cartoon map depicting the soon-to-be belligerents in a rather modern style. This places him in a tradition of cartoon maps that started in the midnineteenth century where he remains an outsider. Conforming to the current neutrality of the Netherlands this cartoon map presented no value judgement, but just stereotyped the combatting parties. (back)
Wim van Wijk
Sixteenth-century giant map reveals some of its secrets
[Caert-Thresoor 33 (2014) 1, pp. 9-12]
The Regional Archives of Dordrecht hold a giant manuscript map (190 x 375 cm) from 1540, probably made by the surveyor Cornelis Schilder, of the Zuid-Hollandse Waard. The map was probably commissioned by the Audit of Holland in relation to legal issues of fishery. A striking feature on the map is a list of land owners with the areas of land they held, and the same names occur in a source of 1521. From 1540 an account is known where Cornelis Schilder is paid for the 'painting' of two maps; possibly a second copy of this map existed. Similarities with this giant map can be seen in a number of smaller manuscript maps in The National Archives in The Hague. These are not direct copies, however, because clear differences can be identified. The Regional Archives of Dordrecht recently digitised the enormous map which will be made available on their image database. (back)
Falsified old maps from Istanbul
[Caert-Thresoor 33 (2014) 1, pp. 13-15]
In the 1980's the Grand Bazar in Istanbul featured a few book and print stands where "antique" maps were being sold. A remarkable set of these maps was on offer, presumably carried across the Turkish border by a fugitive from Iran. The maps display all parts of the world and are lavishly decorated with portraits, equestrian figures and depictions of animals reportedly living in the areas shown. A few years ago these specimens were offered at US auctions, and could be found on the internet as genuine historical cartography. In fact, these maps are painted in manuscript onto the blank versos of book pages with Arabic text of a non-determined nature. These books are readily and cheaply available as, since Kemal Ataturk's prohibition of Arabic script in 1923 when their value declined considerably, younger Turks became unable to read them anymore. The old paper, proprovided the pages are blank on verso, is eminently suitable for this kind of "recycling". The text on the new verso, once deciphered, will give them away, as will the pencil borderlines discernible in parts of the painting or, on occasion, illogical combinations of animals and topography. (back)
Depth lines deepened. Cartographer Pierre Ancelin, inventor of a system of isobaths
[Caert-Thresoor 33 (2014) 1, pp. 16-25]
Luigi Ferdinando Marsigli is credited as the first cartographer to describe the use of depth lines (isobaths) on a chart (1725). But the Rotterdam town surveyor Pierre Ancelin (before 1653 - 1720), commissioned by the town council, made manuscript charts in the vicinity of Rotterdam. In local writing about the town's history his chart of 1697 is considered as the first chart with isobaths. In this article the author stresses the importance of Pierre Ancelin whose application of isobaths was based on scientific method. This article is a shortened version of a paper published in the Rotterdamsch jaarboekje in 2009. (back)
French maps of the XVII Provinces of the Netherlands, 1630-1650
[Caert-Thresoor 33 (2014) 2, pp. 39-45]
By studying maps of the XVII Provinces of The Netherlands it seems that many maps and states of maps depicting this area were omitted from the cartobibliography Old Maps of The Netherlands, 1548-1794 by H.A.M. van der Heijden, which was published in 1998. The author of this article has discovered sixteen maps, and approximately 90 states of maps, of the XVII Provinces of The Netherlands that, as far as he is aware, have not been documented before. In particular, relatively little is known about French folio maps and their cartographers from the early period 1630 - 1650. This article is aimed at discussing these French maps in more detail to elucidate their importance in cartographic history. Louis Loeb-Larocque, a Parisian antiquarian, focused especially on this topic in a few of his articles. He calls this group of Paris-based French cartographers/publishers, which copied maps of The Netherlands, "Ces Hollandaises habilees à Paris". (back)
The 'kerkenkaart' mystery: a study of the 'Oestvrieslant' and 'Oversticht' woodcut fragments
[Caert-Thresoor 33 (2014) 2, pp. 46-50]
This article is about a new study of a map of the Utrecht diocese or 'kerkenkaart' (church map), which is usually dated to ca. 1524 and was found at Leiden University Library in April 1956 with
probably not two, but three, other fragments serving as reinforcement of a book cover. In 2011-2012, when I wrote my Master's Thesis for Landscape History (University of Groningen) about the woodcut fragments, some interesting
things came to light.
One was an unknown watermark of a deer I found in the Oversticht fragment, calling into question Strasbourg as the place of printing. Based on the paper used it turned out to be more likely that the map was printed in the Netherlands. But where?
Possibly the Utrecht diocese map was made in connection with the election of the bishop of Utrecht around 1524, but no evidence of that is produced. Only in the Memoriale van de reis naar Heidelberg an den elect (Kampen Municipal Archive) it was mentioned that a map was created for bishop-elect Henry of Bavaria to show him his future territory.
In a letter dated 1534 Viglius, judicial vicar of the bishop of Münster, writes about a map with all places of the diocese. He complains about the incorrect distances between places and the rendering of rivers. It is tempting to hypothesize that this is our map, but it is unsure whether Viglius refers to a woodcut or a manuscript.
A reconstruction made in the ArcGIS programme gives a plausible explanation for places chosen to be shown on the map: the division into parishes on the Oversticht fragment; and another source, probably an old map, for the Oestvrieslant fragment. In any case what we see must be the combination of a map image, composed by someone with the help of multiple (oral) sources, and maybe a name list, drawn up by someone from the western part of the Netherlands. Gaps in the source material and (interpretation) errors led to the apparent problems of this map.
Study of the woodcut fragments will lead to new research questions to help unravel the mystery of the 'kerkenkaart'. Starting from the assumption that the Oestvrieslant and Oversticht woodcut fragments are part of a map of the entire Utrecht diocese, the conclusion is that this must be the oldest known printed map of (a part of) the Netherlands. (back)
Paula van Gestel
The making of the Monumenta: Günter Schilder's magnum opus Monumenta Cartographica Neerlandica completed
[Caert-Thresoor 33 (2014) 2, pp. 51-55]
The gradual realization by Günter Schilder of his monumental series Monumenta Cartographica Neerlandica is dealt with here, on the basis of interviews with the author. At an early date its aims were established as: the unveiling and
inventory of the map and atlas production in Amsterdam in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, focusing on the Dutch participation in the early geographical discoveries, and the conservation, restoration and the production
of facsimiles of those maps in order to safeguard this material for the future.
The selection of the material is accounted for, both regarding the publishers and authors and the selection of map types. Input by three different publishing houses (Israel, Canaletto and Hes & De Graaf) during this project is indicated as well. The series was completed by volume IX. To improve access to the whole series a general index of personal names, maps by region and a dozen thematic subjects covered by all nine volumes has been compiled. (back)
Elien Vernackt, An Heirman en Bram Vannieuwenhuyze
MAGIS Bruges: from sixteenth-century bird’s-eye view to urban history database
[Caert-Thresoor 33 (2014) 2, pp. 56-61]
In 1562 painter Marcus Gheeraerts made a magnificent bird’s-eye view of Bruges. It was commissioned by the city council with the explicit request to draw the connection with the sea shorter and broader than in reality. This propagandistic purpose resulted in many malformations,
for example impressive buildings that are drawn too large. But the fact that the map is excessively detailed is the reason we used it as a scientific database. Water wells, stairways, garden walls, etcetera, are depicted at their true locations and architectural details of landmarks
are entirely correct. The copper engraving measures 1.77m x 1.00m, contains multiple scales and is still to be seen in many halls and living rooms in Bruges.
Using this impressive map, three Flemish universities, the Bruges Museum and the City Archives of Bruges collaborated to build a dynamic knowledge platform of the city’s history. The target group is threefold: researchers, museums and national heritage partners and the general public. The first thing to do was to digitise the map so that every single element – every house, tree, street, etc. – becomes clickable. The outlines of all of these elements were redrawn and the map is thus reshaped into a digital puzzle, with a typology attributed to each part. The digitised map became the basis upon which the knowledge platform was built by the private company GIM. This platform enables us to link any kind of information to every one of the elements and to group them in themes. Images can be added and sources clarified. Information is inserted using a modifiable table, making possible the input of various types of datasets. Due to the malformations, a complete georeferencing is not feasible and could not be included in the database. The system allows a very strong visualisation of spatial information – the map itself already tells a part of the story – with various ways to interrogate it. Themes reorganise the maze of data and everything can be exported digitally. Challenges for the future are the development of a more public-friendly website and, above all, the stimulation of researchers to keep inputting and sharing data. (back)
Soetkin Vervust & Stijn Tallir
The Belgian province of Limburg on Ferraris's Cabinet map (1770-1778)
[Caert-Thresoor 33 (2014) 3, pp. 75-79]
In November 2013 the Agency for Geographical Information Flanders (AGIV) launched its new web portal Geopunt.be, through which a diverse range of geographical information is made available to the general public. The website also encompasses various georeferenced historical maps, including the Flemish part of the Cabinet map of the Austrian Netherlands by count de Ferraris. This map was georeferenced by the private company Aquaterra, a task which proved particularly difficult in the Belgian province of Limburg, where large distortions arose. The 18th-century landscape is probably partly to blame for this, as the large stretches of heath covering the region must have made mapping difficult. However, there are also other historical factors to take into consideration. Contemporary 18th-century Limburg formed part of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège, an autonomous region which split the Austrian Netherlands in half. Ferraris originally planned to map only this nation's borders and the Austrian enclaves within its territory. The decision to map the entire Prince-Bishopric came only at a later stage, when Ferraris had less than a year left to finish surveying and large parts of the Austrian Netherlands still needed to be mapped. The lack of good existing topographic maps of the Prince-Bishopric, and the feudal chaos characterizing its interior, complicated matters further. Nonetheless, Ferraris managed to complete all terrain work within the year. Mapping such a large region within such a short amount of time seems impossible without compromising the quality of the work somewhat. This already became apparent at the time, when last-minute attempts were made to rectify the map, but to little avail. (back)
Peter van der Krogt
The Wereld Atlas voor Huis en Kantoor published by W. Versluys, 1922
[Caert-Thresoor 33 (2014) 3, pp. 80-82]
The 'World Atlas for Home and Office' was published in 1922 by Versluys of Amsterdam. He had found a very cheap way of producing a new atlas. All the maps were taken from an Austrian atlas published by Freytag & Berndt in 1921. Versluys added four pages: title, foreword, list of maps and an advertisement. In the foreword K. Zeeman explains the production method by referring to the high costs of making new lithographical stones for the text, that the names on the maps in many cases cannot be translated, and that most educated Dutch people can understand German. Not mentioned is that the choice and order of the maps are both aimed at Austria and Germany, and that no detailed maps of the Netherlands and its colonies are present. (back)
Collecting nautical charts: colours and topography on nautical charts
[Caert-Thresoor 33 (2014) 3, pp. 83-92]
Chart collectors tend to admire and study the real old nautical charts from the 16th to the 18th centuries. And with reason.
But now, in the era of digital cartography, and possibly even digital navigation, we should be aware of the variety and beauty of many of those rather more recent paper charts from 1900 or slightly earlier. This article points out the diversity in the use of colours and the different choices for the depiction of topography - before this became more and more standardized worldwide - based on examples from the author's private collection.
The charts printed from copper engravings used to be in black only. But even when the printing of colours became easier, hydrographic organizations were reluctant to produce their charts in more than just black. One of the reasons was the need to quickly reprint a chart in cases of emergency, which is easiest if all information is available on the black plate. In various hydrographic offices this was an argument till long after the Second World War. In the USA printing in colour started around 1865. Other HO's followed at, or after, the turn of the 20th century. The article describes the slow introduction of colours. After 1945 colour printing became more common. However, many of the charts, originally produced as copper engravings, remained in black (often with added magenta) till the seventies, and in some cases even as late as 1992, still showing the engraved image.
Examples of charts with one, two, or even seven supporting colours are shown. In addition, the charts might be overprinted with navigation grids. As for the topography: this important chart element will consist of natural and man-made objects, of which the coastline is the most important. Representation of relief and the selection of other elements that play a role in visual navigation will vary from nation to nation as well as over time. On large-scale charts topographic representation sometimes seems to be overdone. The cartographer should always compromise between readability and density of information. (back)
Peter H. Meurer
Hermannus Venraed, a vague figure in the history of early Dutch cartography
[Caert-Thresoor 33 (2014) 3, pp. 93-99]
Hermannus Venraed probably originated from Deventer. He was an impecunious student in theology and medicine and played a role in the early beginning of cartography in the Netherlands. Bibliographically, he is an elusive figure. In 1531 he published a world map of Oronce Fine and in 1535 he made a manuscript terrestrial globe in Deventer; the latter, unfortunately, is now lost. It was the first globe which is proved to have been made in the northern Netherlands. It can be concluded that Hermannus Venraed's interest in cartography was greater than his professional competence. It is therefore not surprising that his 1535 globe was never copied or reissued in the northern Netherlands. (back)
Nicoline van der Sijs
The development of language and culture maps
[Caert-Thresoor 33 (2014) 4, pp. 111-121]
In February 2014 the Kaartenbank (www.meertenskaartenbank.nl) was launched - a website with an index of approximately 30,000 Dutch language and
culture maps. The Kaartenbank provides a first survey of this particular kind of thematic map and this article sketches how these maps evolved. In the 16th century non-topographical information came
to be added to maps, whereby thematic maps were gradually developed. In the 18th century maps were composed showing the spread of languages and peoples. The Romantic period brought an
interest in myths, fairy-tales, songs, customs and the language of ordinary people. As a result, 19thcentury scientists began to systematically collect dialect material with the newly developed research
method of the dialect survey. In the 20th century a number of Dutch dialect atlases were produced and, for these, different kinds of maps were designed: the Kaartenbank comprises 15 kinds such
as phonological, phonetic, lexical and syntactic. As for techniques, six map types can be distinguished: isogloss, symbol, contour, arrow, chorochromatic and choropleth.
From 1934 onwards ethnological surveys were organized, resulting in culture maps being produced; after a few decades, however, these were discontinued. The reason was that finding cultural boundaries turned out to be much more difficult than finding dialect boundaries. For quite some time ethnologists tried - without success - to relate the distribution of specific cultural phenomena to what they had found among the old Germanic peoples of the Franks, Saxons and Frisians. The ethnologists then discarded the cartographical method, while dialect cartography provided new insights for dialectologists after they had given up the historical method. These days dialect cartography is still expanding, in spite of the decline of dialect use and dialect differences. (back)
Descriptions of the town plans of Holland and Utrecht in Joan Blaeu's Toonneel der Steden
[Caert-Thresoor 33 (2014) 4, pp. 122-128]
The famous town atlas of Joan Blaeu, published in Dutch in 1652, contains 275 plans to which sometimes extensive descriptions were added. These descriptions have not been the subject of specific attention, and this article provides an analysis of their characteristics, if only for the towns in Holland and Utrecht provinces. The origin of the descriptions is looked into, as well as the reasons for the differences in their extent. A general characteristic is the urge to extol the virtues of the towns, their buildings and inhabitants. Although it is too early for statistics, many aspects of urban life have been quantified, but not systematically. All descriptions go into the towns' etymologies, history and institutions (churches, schools, former monasteries, hostels and refuges, town halls, exchanges). Many also describe recreational features (parks, pall malls and estates) and dominant economic activities (like shipyards, dye-works for wool, cloth-making, textile manufacturing, etc.), and the various markets where these products changed hands. Finally, famous scholars and administrators were named. (back)
James C. Armstrong
The source of Van Keulen's printed chart of 'Nieuw Matheleage' (Madagascar)
[Caert-Thresoor 33 (2014) 4, pp. 129-135]
The article traces the lineal relationship between a manuscript chart of Matelesij, here dated to 1676, and its printed appearance as 'Nieuw Matheleage' in van Keulen's De nieuwe groote lichtende zee-fakkel, published in 1753. Evidence to support this connection is drawn from the VOC slave-trader Voorhout's 1676 journal. (back)
Arie de Zeeuw
From map to newsprint to map. The Comitatus Zutphania by Kaerius and Visscher
[Caert-Thresoor 33 (2014) 4, pp. 136-142]
The first folio map of the county of Zutphen was published by Petrus Kaerius in his atlas Germania Inferior in 1617. A remarkable number of seven states of this map are known. After 1620 Kaerius sold the copperplate to Claes Jansz. Visscher, who printed the map in 1624. Visscher then transformed the topographical map into a military newsprint. This third state was published in 1627. The events of the siege of Groenlo were added to the map in a hurry and partly incorrectly: the prospect of Zutphen is replaced by an inset plan of Groenlo. In the fourth state the errors are corrected. After the end of the siege Visscher reworked the copperplate back to a topographical map. Finally, two states were published in 1647 and 1648, to which only the publication dates were added. (back)
Laatst bijgewerkt op 2015-02-25