Tijdschrift voor de geschiedenis van de kartografie in Nederland
One of the most important documents in the mapcollection of the Archiefdienst Westfriese Gemeenten in Hoorn is an immense manuscript map of West-Friesland, a region in the Province of Noord-Holland. The map is anonymous and dateless, but a number of topographical details reveal that it must date from the middle of the 17th century. Several stylistic characteristics of ornaments and cartouches allow us to identify the author: the surveyor Johannes Dou (1615-1682) from Leiden, well-known for his monumental maps of Rijnland (1647) and of Noord-Holland (1680). Thanks to these findings the map of West-Friesland can be linked to the measurement of this region by Dou and his colleague Cornelis Lenartsz. Koutter from 1651 to 1654. Their survey was conducted under the authority of the 'Hoge Raad' (Supreme Court) of Holland, Zeeland and West-Friesland and was intended to contribute to a fair allocation of the maintenance cost of the dikes surrounding the depicted region. Dou en Koutter were also required to draw a map, which was described in great detail in their written instructions. The handdrawn map in Hoorn perfectly fits this description. Koutter died around the end of 1654 and the beginning of 1655. Dou probably finished making the map by himself in the course of 1655. In view of the scale, the extent of the surveyed territory and its geometrical and topographical accuracy the map of West-Friesland can be considered an important document for the history of Dutch cartography. Several elements and details indicate that the above mentioned map of Noord-Holland (1680) was partly based on Dou's work in West-Friesland in the midst of the 17th century. (back)
Rob H. van Gent
The Harmonia Macrocosmica of Andreas Cellarius: The masterwork of a forgotten Dutch cosmographer
[Caert-Thresoor 19 (2000) 1, pp. 9-25]
This article presents a biblio-biographical study of Andreas Cellarius (circa 1596 to 1665), a German-born mathematician and cosmographer who worked as a school-teacher (and later school- principal) in Amsterdam, The Hague and Hoorn. His best-known publication, the Harmonia Macrocosmica, is discussed in detail together with its contents, its genesis and its influence. A summary description of each of the 29 plates included in this cosmographical atlas is presented in the appendix. (back)
Dirk de Vries
The Nieuwe Hand-atlas der Aarde (1855) by Hendrik Frijlink: a Dutch Stieler in statu nascendi
[Caert-Thresoor 19 (2000) 2, pp. 37-44]
About 1710 the great atlas tradition in the Netherlands had come to an end. Thereafter mainly composite atlases, relying partly on material inherited from the previous century, were published. The first half of the nineteenth century had nothing at all in this field that deserved mention. Then, about 1850, this situation changed rapidly through the contribution of three mapmakers: Jaeger, Frijlink, and Kuijper.
The Nieuwe Hand-Atlas der Aarde by the bookseller and publisher Hendrik Frijlink of Amsterdam, first issued in four instalments from 1851 to 1855 in 24 maps, occupied a special position within this development because of its remarkable high quality of its production as well as with respect to content. In addition to being publisher Frijlink may also be considered as editor and even, in the case of some maps, as cartographer. For the making of the maps which were still reproduced by copper engraving, he managed to employ the best engravers of those days: father and three sons Veelwaard, Zürcher, Tuyn and Van Baarsel.
The atlas ran through eight editions, of which the first five were published by Frijlink himself from 1851 to 1868. He spared no pains to emend his maps again and again with a lot of insets and new data, e.g. railways. His biggest concern was the constant change of political frontiers he constantly changing political frontiers especially in Central Europe, by which every new edition was always out of date. At the final auction of his stock in 1869 the copperplates came in to the hands of the Leiden publisher Noothoven van Goor, who took care of still another three editions. At the time when the eyes of the learned public in the Netherlands were being gradually opened to what was going on in the field of the geographical sciences abroad, the atlas by Frijlink took a remarkable lonely and prominent position in the slow starting atlas publishing. As an example of a hand-atlas, meant for the general cultured public - as a Dutch Stieler in statu nascendi - this atlas by Frijlink was not succeeded until far into the 20th century, in contradiction to the dozens of school atlases, which started to be published from about 1860. (back)
F.J. Ormeling sr.
The maps of the Residencies of Java and Madura
[Caert-Thresoor 19 (2000) 2, pp. 45-49]
The 1:100.000-scale maps of the Residencies of Java and Madura belong to the most successful map series of the former Netherland Indies. They were published between 1868 and 1897, with reprints last published in 1914. (back)
On the roles played by a map of Visscher and a globe of Blaeu in Huygens's evidential argument concerning a test of his marine-pendulums
[Caert-Thresoor 19 (2000) 2, pp. 51-55]
In this paper I discuss the roles played by a map of Africa by Nicolaas Visscher and a terrestrial globe by Blaeu in the evidential argument of Huygens's analysis of the performance of his clocks to measure longitude during a trial aboard a V.O.C. ship in 1690. Relying on unpublished manuscripts and maps from the Huygens archives I identify, date, and describe both the Visscher map and Blaeu globe. Thus, a better understanding of Huygens's argument is achieved. (back)
Marco van Egmond
The use of book catalogues in historical cartographical research
[Caert-Thresoor 19 (2000) 3, pp. 65-74)
Old book catalogues mentioning maps, atlases and globes are important sources for historical cartographical research. They offer a quick insight into the size, composition and development of a publisher's stock. It is also possible to place and date a certain product in time. Furthermore, book catalogues often contain additional information on the organisation and production of a publishing house. Despite these possibilities, there are also some potential dangers. The contents of the catalogues must be studied very critically: it is doubtful whether all the works issued by a publisher can be traced in preserved catalogues. Secondly, the descriptions of the products are mostly abstract, which makes identification difficult. Lastly, information in the catalogues is frequently obsolete. To overcome these problems, it is advisable to do detailed carto-bibliographical research on extant cartographic material. As such, making a carto-bibliography and studying book catalogues are two complementary activities. (back)
The Image Bank of the Brabant-Collectie on internet
[Caert-Thresoor 19 (2000) 3, pp. 77-81)
Tilburg University has produced a full colour image bank as part of ELISE (Electronic Library Image Service for Europe), a European project with the objective of providing an information service containing both text and images that can be made available to institutions and researchers using high speed communications networks. 13.000 images of historical maps and pictures of Noord-Brabant are stored in a database, freely accessible to everyone by internet (http://cwis.kub.nl/~dbi/database/). (back)
A good lithographic printing department at the Topographic Office
[Caert-Thresoor 19 (2000) 4, pp. 93-104)
In 1814, after the so called French (occupation) period, the inspector-general C.R.T. baron Krayenhoff proposed to the new Dutch king William I to restore the 'Archive of War' in combination with a 'Topographic Office'. His proposals were accepted and the twin institute was founded again.
The Topographic Office in The Hague was divided into two departments, the first under the Corps of Engineers of Krayenhoff and the second under the General Staff of quartermaster-general J.V. baron de Constant Rebecque. The tasks of the first department were triangulation measurements, the collection of statistical data and the compilation of maps and of the second department military reconnaissance surveys.
Especially after the unification at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 of the Northern Netherlands with the former Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) the prospects of the Topographic Office looked fine, but alas, the two generals could not work together. An informal division of activities was the outcome: the first department in the Northern -, and the second in the Southern Netherlands. In the mean time the lithographic industry in the Netherlands developed very slowly. But is was known that this reproduction technique could be put in practice for military purposes. So in the summer of 1818 Krayenhoff and the director of the office, general-major M.J. de Man, asked themselves if it was not possible to install a lithographic field-press for times of war. And perhaps could the office, after establishing a good lithographic printing department, sell lithographic reproductions in times of peace at a good profit? Above all king William stimulated the introduction of the (lithographic) industry in the Netherlands. With his support it was decided quickly in september 1818 that a lithographic press should be installed at the office in the Hague. For the actual installation of the press a younger brother of the inventor of lithography, Alois Senefelder, was invited. This brother, Carl, was at that time active in Brussels as a teacher on lithography. Only after difficult negotiations he declared himself ready to deliver a lithographic press in the Hague and to give lessons on lithography for three months.
So in the beginning of 1919 one of the first lithographic presses in the Northern Netherlands was installed. Carl's two military apprentices at the office made such a rapid progress that already in february 1819 De Man showed the results to king William. The king was delighted and sent a flattering 'Declaration of Satisfaction'. The still existing specimens prove the quality of Carl's lessons.
Yet with the departure of Carl Senefelder in the beginning of april 1819, because of staff- problems, also the activities on lithography at the office ceased. It was only from 1820 on that, very slowly and hardly known to the outside world, some results were achieved. In 1824 king William intervened again, and with a remarkable result: the year 1825 saw the publication of one of the milestones of early Dutch lithography: a complete lithographed booklet with examples of writing in characters for maps and with loose additions, so called 'model drawings'. This all for more uniformity for members of the Corps of Engineers when drawing maps. Nowadays the work is very rare. It seems that only one complete copy, with the about 20 loose additions, still remains.
More research in the field of mapmaking at the Topographic Office needs to be done. (back)
A reconstruction of the use of perspective in Cornelis Anthonisz.'s birds-eye view of Amsterdam
[Caert-Thresoor 19 (2000) 4, pp. 107-113)
This article proposes a solution to the way Cornelis Anthonisz. used perspective in his painted birds-eye depiction of the city of Amsterdam in 1538. The reconstruction is made according to contemporary techniques in carthography and through looking at Anthonisz.'s other works such as woodcuts and paintings.
With the use of a compass Anthonisz. could have made a global ground-plan of the city's map by measuring from and to higher buildings such as church-towers, fortification-towers and mills. The obtained pinpoints where correlated with north-south- and east-west meridians. Then, the birds-eye view could be constructed by choosing a vanishing-point and transferring the data to the picture plane.
When some characteristic pinpoints and meridians on the birds-eye view are compared with the ones on a ground-plan, a stunning reconstruction of Anthonisz.'s use of perspective can be made. In the comparison it is made clear that Anthonisz. only converged the north-south meridians to a vanishing-point and only slightly tilted, but not converged, the east-west meridians. Furthermore, in the south-west sections of the city he abandoned his working-method for the sake of clearness. For, if he converged the meridians in this section to the same extent as he did in the rest of the painting it would not been recognizable. Considerations of this kind are to be seen in the whole oeuvre of Anthonisz.. Clearness and recognition stand above correct use of perspective. (back)