Tijdschrift voor de geschiedenis van de kartografie in Nederland
Johannes Dou was trained to be a surveyor at Leiden University and by his father, Jan Pietersz. Dou. He was appointed surveyor
in 1635 and in that same year he came into service of the Hoogheemraadschap (Water Board) of Rijnland. During a
47-year career Dou produ ced an impressive amount of maps, not only in service of Rijnland, but also for other clients. His greatest
achievements were the surveying and mapping of Rijnland (1639-1647: in cooperation with Steven van Broeckhuysen) and
Uitwaterende Sluizen in Kennemerland en West-Friesland (1664-1677). For the city of Leiden he designed the eastern extension
By means of working for clients other than Rijnland, Dou was able to increase his rather small earnings in service of that institution. This way he managed to acquire himself a relatively high income and a considerable fortune, that made him rise to the second rank class of the population in Leiden. Closer investigation will show if this position was an exception compared to other survey ors.
Dou's oldest son Johannes (1642-1690) also became a surveyor. According to some authors it is doubtful whether various maps, made during the period when both father and son were active as surveyor, were made by Johannes Senior or Junior. Nevertheless, research showed that the signatures of father and son were very different; that is why in fact signed maps are quite easy to distinguish. However, it is plausible that during the period 1665-1669, when Johannes Junior assisted his father in service of Rijnland, they made maps in cooperation. These maps are to be ascribed to the signer. (back)
The Dutch town plans published by Covens and Mortier
[Caert-Tresoor 16(1997) 1, pp.11-17]
The library of the Royal Military Academy in Breda holds a remarkable set of town plans. Published in the eighteenth century by
the Amsterdam firm of Covens & Mortier, the maps are now framed behind glass and hung up. They may in former times have
played an instructive role in the defence of towns.
The set may be looked upon as a town book, here complete in loose sheets.
The author has teken Wouter Nijhoff's, article on Frederick de Wit's town books as his starting point. This article appears to contain several omissions however. Later publications as, for instance, Koeman's Atlantes Neerlandici, and the introduction
to the facsimile of De Wit's town book (after the copy in the Museum Plantin-Moretus), appear to contain a number of incorrect data.
Having seen the rare set of Covens & Mortier plans in Breda, and having examined more copies of both De Wit's town book and the preceding ones by Joan Blaeu and Johannes Janssonius, the author here presents a completely revised table, with commentary, showing the complicated carto-bibliographical history of the town plans in question. (back)
Renswoude 1832: recent example from the series cadastral atlases of the Netherlands
[Caert-Tresoor 16(1997) 1, pp.19-22]
On the occasion of the publication of the first volume of the cadastral atlases of the province of Utrecht this article pays attention
to this atlas, entitled Renswoude in 1832 : land-use and property. The book gives an introduction to the Dutch land-registry in the
19th century, a description of the (cadastral) history of Renswoude and a list of plots and owners. Reproductions of the field plots
The second part of the article contains an updated list of addresses of the provincial foundations and the atlases published till november 1996 (confer Caert-Thresoor 10 (1991)3, p. 47). (back)
Dutch world-maps and the Copernican system in the seventeenth century
[Caert-Tresoor 16(1997) 2, pp.33-40]
Ancient world-maps did show, beside the map itself, a lot of other information. Assuming that this decoration was not chosen at random, but, as a means of marketing the map, carefully chosen, the article investigates what the various cosmographical schemes and emblems in the borders of Dutch 17th-century world maps might tell about the general attitude to the new astronomy. It appears that such emblems are rather scarce until the middle of the seventeenth century. About 1650, however, various map-makers introduce them almost simultaneously, apparently trying to outdo each other. Thereafter (up to about 1690), cosmographical schemes frequently recur, but new designs are rare. Most map-makers have the easy way of falling back to the existing designs introduced in the 1650s. This boom in cosmographical imagery in the 1650s seems to reflect a growing public awareness of the Copernican issue, which can also be attested from other sources. The years 1655 and after saw a vehement theological controversy on the system of Copernicus. However, it is striking that (contrary to foreign maps) most Dutch maps bring the heliocentric system of Copernicus more prominent than the geocentric systems. This is true even of Bible maps. The Dutch public, apparently, was curious for the new ideas rather than susceptible to theological objections. (back)
H.A.M. van der Heijden
A Spanish lesson in Dutch history of cartography
[Caert-Tresoor 16(1997) 2, pp.42-43]
In 1784 the Spanish cartographer Tomas Lopez de Vargas Machuca (1730-1802) published a map of the XVII Provinces of the Netherlands modeled after one by Tobias Mayer (1723-1762). In the sea he engraved an ample text on the history of Dutch cartography. He does not refer to the sixteenth century. Ortelius is not even mentioned and erroneously maps are attributed to Mercator which appeared no earlier than in the Mercator/Hondius-atlas. Tomas Lopez, however, has a profound and detailed knowledge of the cartography of the Netherlands in the 17th and 18th centuries. A complete translation of the Spanish text is given. Strangely enough in G. Marcel's detailed bibliography this interesting map is not mentioned. (back)
Coen Temminck Groll & Jan Werner
Cornelius Groll (1781-1869), chief-engineer at the land regis-try office in the Province of Noord-Holland, a biographical sketch
[Caert-Tresoor 16(1997) 2, pp.45-50]
In this article a short biographical sketch is given of Corne-lius Groll, chief-engineer at the land registry office in the Province of Noord-Holland in Haarlem. Groll was responsible for the large topographic map of Noord-Holland, a copper engraving in twelve sheets, scale 1:50,000, which was comple-ted in 1853, when Groll was at the age of 72. Groll was invol-ved in the development of the Dutch land registry in the years after the French had left. The surveying of Noord-Holland (and most other provinces) really started in about 1817 and was completed in 1832. He reti-red at the age of 75 after a long and succes-sful carreer at the land registry office. Some of his des-cen-dants, inter alia his son Johan-nes Groll (1814-1883), displayed remarka-ble talents in the field of survey-ing and drawing as well. (back)
The wall map painted on the house of 'the bakery at the corner' with a route to the Oostmeijer clothing shop
[Caert-Tresoor 16(1997) 3, pp. 61-65]
For several years before 1887 a map of a part of Amsterdam could be seen on the outer wall of a bakery at the corner of the Utrechtsestraat and the Keizersgracht. The map showed a route from the bakery to the shop of Meindert Oostmeijer junior, a ready-made tailor, in the Kalverstraat. The wall map described here is the oldest known 'advertising map' in the Netherlands. (back)
Henk van der Heijden
The oldest map of the Duchy of Brabant
[Caert-Tresoor 16(1997) 3, pp. 67-69]
Probably the oldest map of the Duchy of Brabant is a round hand-coloured manuscript map (diameter, 14 centimetres), found in the Royal Library, Brussels. The topography differs from the maps by Jacob van Deventer and the woodcuts by Sebastian Mnster. The map, which originates from the monastery of Zevenborren in the community of Sint Genesius Rode, is part of a manuscript of 111 pages. It dates from 1536/37 and is accompanied by a list including 26 cities and towns in the Duchy of Brabant, along with other topographical features such as rivers, monasteries and abbeys. (back)
The Spanish Atlas Mayor by Blaeu: New data
[Caert-Tresoor 16(1997) 3, pp. 71-76]
A flow of cartographic material in the 16th and 17th century went from the Low Countries to Spain and names of cartographers of the Low Countries were well known at the Royal Court of Spain. Blaeu was one of them. His atlas mayor is presently available in several libraries. So far 15 copies have been located. The Blaeu Spanish edition we know consists of ten volumes. It was never finished due to a fire which destroyed his workshop. It differs from other editions, as the seperate volumes do not have the same title, the volumes are not numbered, the serie is incomplete and years of publication are widely separated. A finding in the state archives at Simancas is a letter from the Count of Pe¤aranda to king Philips IV, dated 27th May 1660, in which he informed the king he was sending an atlas of ten volumes in the Spanish language as a gift from Blaeu and which atlas Blaeu had dedicated to the king. Pe¤aranda had been informed that six more volumes were still to come. Five volumes of the atlas dated before 1660, have probably formed part of the atlas sent to the king. From Blaeuþs dedication can be concluded, that there had been volumes of America, Africa and Asia. A confirmation, that anyhow a volume of Asia had existed, can be found in an inventory made of the library of Juan de Austria after his death in 1679, whereby a volume of Asia in the Spanish language was listed. From this newly found material it can be said, that Blaeu in 1660 had printed 10 volumes of an Atlas Mayor in Spanish, which is before he started printing a Mayor in other languages. Five pending volumes containing the remaining European countries had been sent in 1672 to king Carlos II, son and successor of Philips IV. In his dedication to Carlos II Blaeu stated, he had dedicated the first part of his atlas to Philip IV and now is sending the last part of the European geography to Carlos II and as such the two parts together give a complete view of the kingdoms and nations over which he rules. From the newly found documentation and study of the dedications the following can be concluded. (back)
Balthasar Florisz. van Berckenrode and the town plans in Boxhorn's Theatrum
[Caert-Tresoor 16(1997) 4, pp. 85-87]
In the Deutsche Staatsbibliothek is an atlas which includes seven city plans which, slightly altered, were subsequently used in Boxhorn's Theatrum, published in 1632. The plans were also used in their original state as parts of Henricus Hondius' 1629 wall map of Holland, drawn by B.F. van Berckenrode, and engraved by Van Berckenro-de and A. Goos. (back)
A special celestial globe from the Map Collection of the Bibliotheek van de Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam
[Caert-Tresoor 16(1997) 4, pp. 89-91]
Browsing around an antiquarian book market some years ago I came across a pair of globes from the 19th century. My attention was particularly drawn to the celestial globe, because of its resemblance to a terrestial globe in our collection. It has an iron foot with lion's paws, and was issued by J. Lebègue in Brussels, but this has not yet been established.
The celestial globe I came across was issued by the Institut National de Géographie, Société Anonyme, Bruxelles under the management of Théodore Falk and Henry Merzbach. This firm produced globes during the last part of the 19th century. These globes are rare items in public collections.
This particular celestial globe is even rarer than de terrestial globe. The only known specimen is in the collection of the Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa (number 65 in the list of globes in Portugal). This was one more reason for acquiring this globe. But that was not all. Restoration was necessary, because of the dimness of the black line-drawings of the constellations, the illegiblity of the characters and some further slight damage.
The globe has been restored by Peters, a firm at Eerbeek, yhe Netherlands. The result is a beautiful representative of the 19th-century globe-industry, unique in the Netherlands. (back)
Van Nierop's chart of Europe in a report of Christaan Huygens
[Caert-Tresoor 16(1997) 4, pp. 93-95]
In this article attention is called to a rare chart drawn by the Dutch mathematician and alma-nac-writer Dirck Rembrandtz van Nierop. An argument is given to date the creation of the map to around 1658. Van Nierop's map supported an important step in a chain of arguments of Christiaan Huygens in Huy-gens's (1688) 'Report concerning the Measure-ment of Longitude by my Clock on the Voyage from the Cape of Good Hope to Texel in the Year 1687' to the directors of the Dutch East India Company. (back)
Who identifies the maps out of miniature-books from a 17th-century doll's house?
[Caert-Tresoor 16(1997) 4, pp. 97-98]
In the library of a doll's house in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, five small albums contain fragments of topographical maps and plans of unknown origin. The author emphasises the importance of identifying the source of the different engravings and asks the readers of this journal to inform the editors when informa-tion is available. (back)