Tijdschrift voor de geschiedenis van de kartografie in Nederland
The reign of Tsar Peter I (1682- 1725) was to change the whole
order of life in Russia. This transformation affected also the
production of Russian maps.
On his trip to Europe in 1697-98 Peter I was greatly interested
in meeting Western scholars and craftsmen. In Amsterdam
Peter met with Dutch engravers and officers, many of whom
accepted his invitation to enter into Russian service. The
engraving and printing of the first Russian originals was to take
place in the Netherlands. While staying in Amsterdam, Peter
handed to Jan Thesing a manuscript of Southern Russia,
prepared during the Azov campaign of 1696. Thesing published the printed version of the Latin edition in 1699. The very
existence of the edition printed in Russian, the first map ever,
was contested until a copy was found in this century. Subsequently even, Thesing set up a Russian typography in Amsterdam, for which Peter granted him the exclusive rights.
One of the first Dutchmen to be enlisted for Russian service was Cornelis Cruys. With the rank of Vice-Admiral Cruys was directed with the construction of the Russian Navy. In 1699, to secure the Turkish frontier, Tsar Peter and Cruys sailed their newly build fleet down the Don to Azov. Cruys took advantage of the journey to survey the entire course of the Don. On a short visit to Amsterdam, Cruys delivered the manuscript maps to Hendrick Doncker for engraving and printing. The maps were bound as an atlas and published between 1703-05. The 'Atlas of the Don' constitutes a very unique and rare document.
It was the last time engraving and printing of Russian maps was realized abroad. From this time on Russian map production was entirely to take place inside Russia. This highly successful change was to a considerable extent due to the work of Adriaan Schoonebeeck, the very able Dutch engraver whom Peter had invited to Moscow. Despite his short period in Russian service (1698-1705) Schoonebeeck was one of the most productive foreign masters.
He engraved a plan of the siege of Azov (1699), a map of the eastern part of the Sea of Azov (1701) and many maps of the Baltic regions. Besides that he was a teacher of many Russian pupils.
Another Dutch engraver Pieter Picaart, pupil of Schoonebeeck, entered Russian service in 1702. His work included maps of the Finnisch Gulf, a print of the battle of Poltava and a large view of Moscow.
After 1725 no Dutchman seems to have played any role of significance in Russlan cartography, which had become entirely autonomous and did therefore no longer depend on European cartographers. (back)
Mapping the Berkel river: The maps of Gerrit Ravenschot a.o. (1763), the foundation of the second Cornpany of the Berkel
[Caert-Thresoor 8(1989) 1, pp. 8-11]
The first Company of the Berkel, founded 1644 to make the Berkel river navigable, resulted in a failure. In spite of this many people, especially in Zutphen, hoped for a recovery of the old shipping route to the Mnsterland. In 1753 the Zutphen city architect Gerrit Ravenschot made a new plan for the canalization of the Berkel river. His plan was the immediate cause for the foundation of the second Company of the Berkel. For the execution of his plan he was in 1763 charged to make a map of the river course from Vreden (in Germany) to Zutphen, where the Berkel flows in the IJssel river. Together with J. H. van den Heuvel and L.H. Bonnet two maps were made, one with a scale of ca. 1:3700 (length of the map 13 meters) and one with a scale of ca. 1:7000 (length 5 meters), which were finished in 1764. They are preserved in the city archives of Zutphen. The article discusses these maps and the different canalization projects illustrated. The second Company of the Berkel, founded in 1766, however, flourished only a short period. Apart from this, the shipping on the Berkel ended at the end of the nineteenth century. (back)
Pictures of cities: an attempt to place them, between art and science on the basis of a new classification
[Caert-Thresoor 8(1989) 2, pp. 22-32]
There is no concensus of opinion about the divising line between art and science; nor are there any clear cut criteria to
distinguish between topographic maps and topographic pictures. In this article an attempt wili be made to place cartographic pictures of cities between art and science. To this end,
first, the most important properties or characteristics of these
pictures will be outlined. Successively will be mentioned the
choice of materials by the author, the (vertical) angle, the way
buildin'gs and other objects have been drawn, the surrounding
area of the city, the scale, the projection, the degree of detail
and generalisation and the geodetic accuracy.
On closer examination of the angle, there appears to be a tripartation: plans, oblique perspective drawings and profiles. The categorie plans comprises those images that depict a city perpendicularly above. A profile is obtained when the author takes his direction of view parallel to the earth's surface. Both these kinds of pictures should be considered as ideal types. All other drawings depicting a city at an angle of zero up to ninety degrees are ranged with the oblique perspective drawings. When describing such a drawing, it is advisable to indicate the estimated (angle). In practice it is necessary to observe a certain degree of flexibility with regard to determining the exact angle.
It is suggested that a classification of pictures of cities should be based on the most user-friendly characteristics, being the angle and the indication whether buildings and other objects were drawn in a three dimensional way. The other six characteristics are, for different reasons, unusable as criteria for classification. The choice of materials and the question whether or not the surrounding areas of the cities are included, do not say anything about the quality of the main content (the city itself) of the picture. The four remaining characteristics: the projection, the scale, the degree of detail and generalisation, and the geodetic accuracy are also considered unusable criteria in this respect. They are, however, important with regard to the placing of cartograpby between art and science.
Especially old maps ofien have both a decorative and a cartographic content. The ornamental part is usually disignated as 'artistic'. The intention of this article, however, is not to deal with the artistic value of decorations on maps, but to discuss some aspects of the place of the cartographic content between art and science. The basic assumption is that we are dealing with images of object (cities) that are observable in the territory. Thematic images and scale-models are excluded. In order to be able to place cartographic pictures between art and science, the question should be formulated as follows: which position do cartographic pictures occupy between artistic and scientific pictures. It is hardly possible to present a generally recognized definition of an artistic picture. In practice, it is artist, art-lovers and art-buyers as'well as the established authorities on art who determine which pictures recelves the designation 'artistic'. The definition of a scientific picture must be approved differently. A scientific picture can be described as an illustration of the findings of scientific research. The picture itself can not be considered scientific. The scientific element of cartography should be focused primarily on developing methods to improve the technical aspects of the production of maps, and on research on the way maps are experienced by their users. Departing from the ideas mentioned above and from the definition of 'map' and 'cartography' as given in the Dutch Cartographic Dictionary (1985-1986), the author states that the final product that we cal] map:
- may receive the designation 'artistic',
- can not be called scientific,
- has to comply with certain technical standards.
The scientific cartographer should adopt an attitude of aloofness with regard to the question whether or not a car- tographic picture methods and technics. This applies to modern cartographers as well as to map-historians. The scien- tific cartographer has the task to lay down the technical criteria an picture has to meet in order to be called 'map'. The moment he concerns himself with the reason why a map was made, which in itself is a very useful activity, he infringes upon the ter- ritory of other specialists. If, for example, he investigates the purpose that lies behind a certain nautical chart, the map historian enters the field of maritime history. If he verifies the reason for making a certain juridical map, he treads on the ter- ritory of the history of law. Etc. Likewise, the artistic evaluation of pictures and their actual technical realisation are strictly speaking beyond the scope of the cartographer who claims to be a scientist. (back)
Ernst van Keulen
Johannes van Keulen: The start of two centuries chart-making at the Nieuwe Brug in Amsterdam
[Caert-Thresoor 8(1989) 2, pp. 33-39]
An exhibition about charts, books and instruments for navigation is to be seen at the Nederlands Scheepvaart Museum in
Amsterdam, from june 28 until august 20 this year. The charts,
books and instruments shown are products of the House Van
Keulen, which was acting in Amsterdam from about 1680 until
1885. All texts in this exhibition are in dutch as well as in
The article is concerned with Johannes van Keulen, the founder of the firm. Little is known about him and the scarce information is not always interpreted in the right way. For many decades Johannes van Keulen was mixed up with someone else. At the end of the C 17 there were several men living in Amsterdam with the same name, Johannes van Keulen. At least two of them were in cartography trade. Keuning solved the confusion in 1952. He carefully examined the familyties of the Van Keulens. He distilated out of all these ties the real founder of the House Van Keulen.
The address of Johannes van Keulen has also been subject to misunderstanding. In this article it is proved that he never lived and worked in the Nieuwebrugsteeg in Amsterdam, as was supposed by Bom, the biographer of the Van Keulens, and Koeman. Van Keulen published two important pilots, the Zee- Fakkel and the Zee-Atlas. The latter was already published before 1680. Because most of the charts lack dates, it's difficult to obtain the exact publishing date. One of the consulted copies of the Zee-Atlas contains a chart wich is dated 1674 (see illustration). The name 'Johannes van keule' and the date '1674' are printed different, compared to the other text on the chart. It's probably printed later. If the dating is correct, this chart would be the oldest one known made by Johannes van Keulen. lf not, why is the date '1674' used?
In 1680 Johannes van Keulen got his first privilege granted by the Dutch government of that time. This privilege was a kind of protection against illegal copying of produced books and charts. This was especially for the atlases or pilotbooks which were made with extensive initial costs.
The other pilot, the Zee-Fakkel, was published in 5 volumes between 1681 and 1684. It contained over 130 new charts, most of them compiled by Claas Jansz. Vooght and illustrated by Jan Luyken. The charts covered all the known seas and coasts of the world. The area east of Cape of Good Hope and west of Cape Hoorn though, was not published in detailed charts, because of the trade-monopoly of the Dutch East Indies Company (VOC). The grandson of Johannes van Keulen, would be the first in the Netherlands to publish detailed printed charts of this area in a pilot which was called 6th volume of the Zee-Fakkel (1753). (back)
19th century thematic cartography
[Caert-Thresoor 8(1989) 2, pp. 46-52]
The thematic map is essentially a scientific map, it depicts not
the aspects of reality as they appear directly to the senses, but
ideas about reality. Edmund Halley, the pioneer of thematic
cartography in England, made his first two scientific maps to
support theories. His chart of magnetic variation in the Atlantic
(1701) was the first isogonic map; he had invented the line of
equal value. The concept was not further developed until 1817
when Alexander von Humboldt devised the first isotherm map.
The technique was widely applied to other phenomena. The
fullest exploitation appears in Dr. Heinrich Berghaus's
Physikalischer Atlas, Gotha, 1845. Alexander Keith Johnston
published an Englisch version in Edinburgh in 1848.
For mapping in the field of human and economic geography and statistics the time span in development was somewhat similar. Sir William Petty invented and development the science of 'political arithmetic' in the period 1660 to 1690. William Playfair the scot and A.F.W. Crome, a professor at Giessen, were both innovators in developing statistical graphics. Crome is now considered to be the inventor of the statistical map, anticipating Humboldt's work of the 1810s and 1820s. '
By the 1820s sociological phenomena were being represented on maps in works by the French statistician Charles Dupin (Paris, 1827), by Adolphe Quetelet of Belgium (Paris, 1835) and by A-M Guerry (Paris, 1833). Guerry in 1833 was the first to use the term 'statistiques morales' (moral statistics). His atlas on the moral statistics of England compared with France, Paris, 1864, created a sensation in Germany, England and the United States of America. England contributed with similar studies undertaken by Joseph Fletcher and (at the request of Albert the Prince Consort) illustrated with maps in 1849. There were other important developments in Great Britain at about the same time. In 1837 lieutenant Henry Drury Harness produced an atlas of lreland to accompany the Second Report of the Commissioners for Railways. This included map show- ing population by shading (the dasymetric technique) and traf- fic flow. The latter were the first published economic , flow maps. Alphonse Belpaire of Belgium and C.J. Minard of France may have seen Harness's maps. Both were making flow maps in the 1840s, and Minard developed to a fine art the 'carte figurative à bandes.'
The German geographer Augustus Petermann, who was trained by Berghaus at Potsdam, made important experiments in tecniques of statistical mapping while in London from 1847 to 1854, making maps of population (1849), occupations (1851) covering the British Isles. in 1857 Niels Ravn the Danish statistican achieved a forther advance with his maps of the population of Denmark in 1845 and 1855, using a system of isopleths to represent density.
Thers almost all the thematic techniques at present in use had been invented by the middle of the 19th century. A new car- tographic language had been devised. Significantly, the term cartographia' (cartography) was coined in 1839. The name 'thematic' as applied to maps is comparatwely recent, dating from 1952-53. (back)
Early 19th century seacharts of the Dutch East Indies as product of navigational education
[Caert-Thresoor 8(1989) 2, pp. 53-57]
The decline of the Dutch East India Company in the second
half of the 18th century also had its influence on the quality of
the Dutch seacharts, which were mostly based on observations
of ships officers. One of the causes for the declining quality of
the charts was the lack suffucient training and instruction on
subjects like navigation and hydrographic surveying for boys
who whould become officers on ships of the Dutch East India
Company (VOC). An 'Académie de Marine', which was
established in Batavia in 1743 had to close down only after a
few years. the second attempt to set up an educational institute proved more successful. In 1782 a 'Navy School' was
founded in the town of Semarang on the North coast of Java.
Later, in 1817, this school was changed into a 'Military
School'. In these institutes rnuch time was spent on teaching
the pupils landsurveying and hydrographic surveying. The
main instructor responsible for the teaching of hydrographic
surveying was Jan Teunis Busscher. Under his guidance a
large number of hydrographic charts of the Dutch East Indies
were made. The charts of the seas around Java and of the
most important harbours along the coasts of this island were
based on surveys he carried out together with his pupils.
There were also charts made in the Navy School, which
covered seas in other parts of the archipelago. These,
however, were compiled from existing charts, both from Dutch
and British origin.
The charts were copied by hand in the school, which was done by the pupils. So training and production were carried out at the same time. That is why we can consider the Navy/Military School not only as a training establishment, but also as a small hydrographic bureau.
The charts produced in this way fill in the gap between the end of the 'traditional' charts of the East Indies, made under the supervision of the Dutch East India Company, which officially ceased to exist on 31st December 1799, and the beginning of the production of the more 'modern' hydrographic charts in the course of the 19th century. (back)
[Caert-Thresoor 8(1989) 3, pp. 61-71]
In this paper the origin and, development of the triangulation
method is traced. Two. Dutchmen, Gemma Frisius and
Willebrord Snellius play an important part in this development.
Frisius gave the first clear description of the method of intersection (1533) and Snellius introduced the use of a triangulation-network combined with accurate base line measurements and
astronomical determined points (1617).
Attention is also paid to Sebastian Münster, who suggested the use of bearing and distance for position fixing and Wilhelm Schickhart, who observed for the first time a triangulation-network for topographical mapping.
Furthermore it is shown that the contribution by Tycho Brahe is neglectable. Special attention is paid to the development in The Netherlands. (back)
The town plans of Jacob van Deventer: Results of a recent investigation in Madrid
[Caert-Thresoor 8(1989) 4, pp. 81-95]
In the second half of the 16th century the Dutch cartographer
Jacob van Deventer, probably by order of the Spanish king
Philip II, executed about 250 topographical plans of the
Netherlands at that time. Two series of the plans have survived. One series of 152 loose-leaf plans which had been auctioned in 1859 in The Hague is at present being preserved in
several Dutch and Belgian archives. The few texts on these
leaves are all written in Dutch. A second series of the town
plans, in two volumes bearing the numbers II en III is to be
found in Madrid. The texts of all these plans are written in
Latin. Volume I has not been recovered.
Philip's intermediary in the Netherlands was Viglius, president of the State council at Brussels. The original correspondence between Viglius and his Dutch friend Hopper in Madrid, related to the acquisition of the plans, has been recovered. It appears that Van Deventer in 1572 fled from Malines to Cologne, taking with him the town plans. Presumably he refused to deliver the plans to Viglius, evidently because of non-payment by the Government.
When he died at the age of about 75 years in Cologne in 1575 the municipal government discovered in his household effects the important works which appeared to be connected with the Spanish king. The correspondence with Viglius shows that there were three volumes of maps and town plans bearing the coat-of-arms of Philip II. The city council was inclined to send the 'books and the belonging minutes' to Viglius. Viglius wrote to Hopper that he had received the 'three geographical books' but he died before he could send them to Spain. It remains unknown when and how the works arrived in Madrid. Only two of the three volumes are known, the already mentioned volumes II and III in Madrid. Nothing is known about the minutes. In Cologne, Van Deventer must have met the famous publisher Hogenberg because they knew each other earlier. In his Civitatis Orbis Terrarum the latter mentions the cartographic works of Van Deventer, remarking that Van Deventer died too early. It is now generally accepted that the leaves which appeared at the auction are the minutes, and the two volumes are the fair copies of the Van Deventer town plans. I have studied the original volumes in Madrid and combined the results with published data on this matter, including the facsimile-edition of the loose-leaf plans. This study leads to the conclusion that the 'minutes' by no means could have served in executing the fair copies. The plans in the two volumes contain several hundreds of legends indicating rivers and other waters, churches, abbeys, hospitals, town halls etc. which Van Deventer could not possibly have remembered by heart when drawing the fair copies. There must have been a third series of the plans. In- deed, the 'minutes' probably could have been drawn after having cornpleted the fair copies, with the intention to have them printed by Hogenberg. This could have been the explanation of the remark of Hogenberg, paraphrasing the death of a 75-year old man, in those days, as too early.
Several features of the town plans, in both existing versions are discussed. In volume II an index by another hand is present but the numbers of the leaves and the spelling of most of the towns do not match with the contents. Volume III contains an index by Van Deventer himself, but was unfinished, ending with the letter C. It is suggested that volume III originally should have been no I. A complete review of all the existing towns plans, in their original spelling and sequence in both albums is given. (back)
M.A. van der Eerden-Vonk
The 17th century Edam land surveyor and cartographer Sijmon Willemszoon Boonacker
[Caert-Thresoor 8(1989) 4, pp. 95-103]
In Edam several cartographers flourished during the 16th and the
first decades of the 17th century. They achieved great fame,
especially because of their nautical maps of the recently discovered
shores of Asia, Africa and the Americas. In addition of these
charts. Some members of this so-called 'North-Holland' or'Edam
School of Cartographers', such as Cornelis Doets and Marten
Janszoon produced also maps of a more local signigicance.
However, the town of Edam harboured another group of less known cartographers, who just concentrated on local and regional maps. Amongst them, Sijmon Willemszoon Boonacker (ca. 1597- ca. 1641) figures as one of the most important.
After having been officially installed in 1615 as land surveyor, Boonacker presumably worked for a few years as a schoolmaster in Edam, before he got his first large assignment in 1620: the surveying, parcellation and charting of the Purmer inpoldering. From that moment on he spent most of his professional life on the many land-reclamations, as carried out at that time in North- Holland. Besides his job in the Purmer (1620-1629), Boonacker participated in the inpoldering of the Broeker-, Buiksloter- and Belmerlakes (1627-1629), the Wormer (1625-1627), the Voor-IJ (1633-1634) and in the damming up of the Gouwzee (c. 1630?) which was ultimately not realized.
Further, he was employed by the municipal governments of the towns of Monnickendarn (1624-1632) and Edam (1622-1634). For the latter he drew, among other things, three maps related to the planned extensions of the town.
With the exception of a few surveying activities for the Westfriese Omringdijk in 1637, nothing is known about the last part of his career from 1634 until his death in 1641 of 1642.
The appendix of the article contains a list of all known surviving and lost maps of Boonacker, in original or in copy. (back)