Tijdschrift voor de geschiedenis van de kartografie in Nederland
Stadholder William III (later also King of England) established Het Loo Palace and adjacent Le Nôtre style gardens late in the seventeenth century. After his death in 1702 his creation declined but was restaured and extended in the second half of the eighteenth century under Stadholder William V. Few early maps are preserved. The earliest showing the entire design is H. van Berken's (1763). A period of serious decline was the Batavian Republic's (1795-1806). During Louis Napoleon's reign (1806-1810) a major reconstruction of the gardens took place reshaping them into contemporary style. King Louis and his architects were in need of large scale maps. M.J. de Man, known from his Veluwe mapping (1802-1812) seems to have provided the first of these in 1806; others - mostly lost - follo- wed in subsequent years. 'National Museum Paleis Het Loo' could recently acquire De Man's map of 1806, the existence of which was not even known. This map - which resembles Van Berken's - and its early history are discussed in connection with some other, partly unknown, maps of Het Loo made in those days. (back)
Four maps of the Cape of Good Hope I, II and III
[Caert-Thresoor 6(1987) 1, pp. 10-17]
The four maps are undated and three of them are anonymous.
Their most important feature is that they show a number of names of farmers (vrijburgers) and officials of the Dutch East India
Compagny (VOC). Comparison of the names and analysis of
omitted and added names made it possible to establish the period in which the maps have been made: between 1694 (1687)
and november 1713. Names of persons, topographical data
and geographical errors (rendering of Cape Peninsula and Saldanha Bay, course of rivers and number of smal] lakes) show
that the maps are closely related.
The oldest one, VEL 809, is a manuscript map made by the VOC settlement at the Cape to inform the board of directors in Holland of the state of affairs of live-stock grazing, agriculture, viticulture and forestry. This copy can still be found in the Algemeen Rijksarchief (ARA) in The Hague; a second copy is in the archives in Cape Town. The map was completed in or shortly before 1694 but also contains data from the end of 1687.
The three other maps are printed ones. The first one, Nova et Accurata Tabula Promontorii Bonae Spei (ARA: VELH 93), is based on VEL 809 and some other ms-maps in the (secret!) VOC-archives. The mapped region has been enlarged northwards to include the Saldanha Bay. The inland of this extension shows no topographical details. The map must have been made between 1699 and 1702/1703. The name of the maker is unknown. Apart from a single copy in the ARA, the map can be found in the Atlas Major in 6 volumes by R. & I. Ottens in Teylers Museum, Haarlem.
The second printed map, Le Cap de Bonne Esperance, was published by Pieter van der Aa (c. 1659-1733), bookseller at Leiden, in several of his atlases. It is based on the Nova et Accurata Tabula, of which a number of names are omitted. It was possible to date the map after the middle of september 1708 because of a picture of W.A. van der Stel's house Vergelegen in the title decoration. This picture was not known before Van der Stel's return to Holland on september 14th 1708. The map was published for the first time in Van der Aa's Nouvel Atlas, dedicated to the four burgomasters of Leiden whose joint term of office ended on November 10th 1713. This establishes its terminus ad quem. The fourth map, the Carta Geografica del Capo di Buona Speranza is a copy of the map published by Van der Aa, with exception of the title decoration. It contains no new names or data but all topographical data and even some of the farmers' names have been translated in ltalian. The map is ascribed by some modern authors to the French geographer Guillaume de I'Isle (1675-1726), because it is only known from the Atlante novissimo che contiene tutte Ie porti del mondo ...del signor G. De L'I., second edition, published in Venice in 1750. However, as shown in Atlantes Neerlandici III under Isaac Tirion, the Atlante Novissimo was composed of maps by Isaac Tirion of Amsterdam, based on a number of maps by De I'Isle. Like Pieter van der Aa, Isaac Tirion (1105-1765) was a publisher and bookseller and not a cartographer. It is not likely that the Carta Geografica was copied from a map by De I'Isle as it does not come up to his high standard of work. Moreover, up till now no map of the Cape of Good Hope by De I'Isle has been found which could have stood model - not even by the cartobibliographers of the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris. Notwithstanding their Latin, French and ltalian titles, it may be assumed that all four maps are of Dutch origin and can be traced back to the "mother" map VEL 809. The names of the makers could not be established. Because of their geographical inaccuracy the maps must have been useless for sea or land voyages. The ms-map had a VOC-purpose; the three printed maps were probably only meant to complete atlases which at that time were much sought after by connoisseurs. (back, this volume) - (back, vol. 6) - (back, vol. 5)
News on the Ebstorf World Map: Date - Origin - Authorship
[Caert-Thresoor 6(1987) 1, pp. 21-30]
The nunnery of Ebstorf (near Lüneburg) possessed in its world
map (12 feet in diameter) the largest medieval world map
known. Its precise date between 1214 and 1373 is still contested among scholars.
The dating here presented is based on information in the map itself and on the analysis of this information from the point of view of constitutional and territorial history. In the Holy Roman Empire the map contains 76 places names, of which only 23 are towns or castles of secular princes. It can be shown that these places are identical with the possessions of the living relatives of Otto the Child of Lüneburg, Duke of Brunswick (1235- 1252), precisely in the year up to his greatgrandparents. An examination of the relationships and ancestry of the subsequent dukes reveals no similar coincidence. Thus, the Ebstorf World Map has to be dated within the life-time of Duke Otto the Child, precisely in the year 1239.
The high number of place names within the area between the rivers Weser and Elbe, especially the knowledge of even small rivers there, has always led tot the conclusion that the map must have been made in that region. It is made clear that only Lüneburg and Ebstorf can be the place of origin. Two points are in favor of Ebstorf: the tiny nunnery of Ebstorf is the only nunnery which is shown on the map except the two most eminent nunneries of the Holy Roman Empire and secondly, the map was found in Ebstorf. As long as there is no proof that the map was once brought to Ebstorf, it is most probable that it was also made there.
In 1930, R. Uhden proposed that Gervasius of Tilbury was identical with Gervasius prepositus of Ebstorf (mentioned 1215 to 1234, 1252?), and clairned him to be the author of the Ebstorf World Map. There were two main arguments against the authorship of Gervasius of Tilbury. He is mentioned as judge in Arles between 1201 and 1221, so he could not have been in Lower Saxony from 1215 on. In fact, however, Gervasius the prepositus of Ebstorf is mentioned only from 1223 to 1234 and this fits perfectly to his residence in Arles up to 1221. Secondly, Gervasius of Tilbury, presuming a birth date c. 1250, would have been toe, old in the 1230s to design a map. Gervasius, however, is mentioned for the first time in 1177 as 'puer' (a boy between 7 and 14), he would have been 76 at the most in 1239.
All this leads to the conclusion that we can indeed regard Gervasius of Tilbury as author of the Ebstorf World Map, created in Ebstorf, and completed in the very year 1239. (back)
Peter H. Meurer
The Covens & Mortier edition of Allard's Atlas Minor
[Caert-Thresoor 6(1987) 2, pp. 31-34]
The author provides a short-title list of the maps occurring in a copy of the rare Covens & Mortier editions of Carel Allard's Atlas minor (ca. 1695), published in Amsterdam in or after 1730 and now preserved in the Archiepiscopal Archives in Cologne, FRG. The copy contains only five maps printed from Allard's original copperplates; a far greater number of the maps is by Covens & Mortier themselves, by Visscher/Schenk, De Wit/Covens. & Mortier or by Homann, Most Hornann maps bear a privilege granted to the Homann Heirs in 1729. The maps numbered 138 tot 146 were originally printed for Chr. Cellarius' Notitia orbis antiqui (Leipzig 1701 ff.) and map 148 is taken from Adriaan Reland's Palestinae monumentis veteribus illustrata (Utrecht 1714). (back)
Post maps from the Netherlands
[Caert-Thresoor 6(1987) 3, pp. 41-46]
The early private posts, which were established by sovereigns, cities, universities, etc., were in several European countries nationalized or transferred in a special management called 'Regie' (Thurn & Taxis 1506). After thus having extended to a more common institution, coach services were provided for passenger travel, and highways improved although not yet paved. Consequently a growing demand for road books and maps was created. Cartographers began to insert post routes and stations in the maps, so as did J. Danckerts about 1660 and Nic. Visscher in 1698. Amsterdam printers and publishers made post maps for foreign order (R. Carr, Anglia 1668) and reprinted many ones, mostly of French origin (Covens & Mortier according to Sanson - Jaillot). 1711 the fundamental post road map of J. P. Nel] was published at Brussels. Out of riding and driving posts as well as highways there were marked the distances as short crosslines upon the direct junction - lines between the places. The engravers Schenk sen. and jun. published at Amsterdam very exact post road maps especially of Saxony and with a new stripe and point signature for "Post Kutzsche". The route - map of Central - Europe which appeared between 1739 and 1750 at Amsterdam by the brothers R. and J. Ottens seems remarkable for showing oversea - postlines. In the Netherlands, since about 1626, rivers and canals have been used for all branches of post services with small covered barges, named the "Trek Vaart". It was not before 181 that the first complete post route map of the Netherlands was published by the Depot Generaal van Oorlog. (back)
Els van Vliet-Mak
The Alkmaar Municipal Archives' map collection
[Caert-Thresoor 6(1987) 3, pp. 47-51]
The maps collected by the chemist C.P. Bruinvis in the nineteenth century and granted to the Alkmaar Municipal Archives
form the basis of the present collection. Archival and other
maps were added to this collection later on. Nowadays the
map collection consists of c. 1200 maps (300 of which in manuscript). Two thirds are pre-1900. Very important are the ms.
map-books, which were made on behalf of the administration
of institutional landholdings in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Also of great importance are the maps relating to water-development (land reclamation and so on) in the surroundings of
the city of Alkmaar, in which local surveyors or map-makers
played a significant role.
Although a lot of maps have not yet been described (because the record-office is understaffed), most of the maps are made accessible by means of a (not published) regional catalogue. (back)
Peter H. Meurer
The map of the Netherlands by Matthias Zündt (1568)
[Caert-Thresoor 6(1987) 3, pp. 52-55]
Between 1565 and 1571 the Nuremberg goldsmith Matthias Zündt (1498?-1572) was active as an engraver and publisher of rnaps and views on topica] events. In 1568 he made a rather crude map showing the places relevant to the beginning of the war between Spain and the Netherlands in the northwestern part of Europe. Topographically Zündt's map is based on Gerard de Jode's wallmap of the Netherlands. combined with some information drawn from other sources. Johann Bussemacher (fl. 1580-1616) re-issued the map at Cologne in c. 1590. In all probability the many additional placenames have been engraved by Matthias Quadt. (back)
The maps of the Westfrisian sea-dikes 1638
[Caert-Thresoor 6(1987) 4, pp. 61-67]
The maps of the Westfrisian sea-dikes, described in this article,
were drawn in 1638 by the surveyor Pieter van der Meersch of
Hoorn and his colleague of Medemblik, Jan Cornelisz. Schagen. The article includes biographic information and cartographic activities of both persons. In 1638 the former drew the
'Drechterlandse' dike in ten sheets, the part of the 'Winkeldijk',
which Drechterland had to keep in good repair, and that part
of the 'Schager en Niedorper Koggendijk', which functioned as
a proper seadike. Jan Cornelisz. Schagen made the one-sheet
map of the dike of the 'Vier Noorder Koggen'.
The maps are interesting from the point of view of both the contents (a lot of partly unique topographic information is shown) and the measurements (a total length of about 20 metres). Van der Meersch and Schagen produced their maps on behalf of the so-called 'Groot Proces', one of those long lasting trials, which took place from 1636 until 1695. At this trial the four partners of the 'waterschap'* West-Friesland' - 'Drechterland' and the 'Vier Noorder Koggen' on the one hand and 'Geestmerambacht' and the 'Schager en Niedorper Koggen' on the other - disagreed about the height of the contributions to the costs of dike-repair. The author concludes that the maps, which now form a part of the old archives of the city of Hoorn, propably originally belonged to the documents, bearing on the case of 'Drechterland' and the 'Vier Noorder Koggen'.
* waterschap: a body, responsibie for the rnaintenance of dikes, roads, bridges and the water-level in a certain area and which also tries to prevent water-pollution. (back)
Nautical charts and place-names: Dutch cartographers and the toponymy of the coasts of Scandinavia in the seventeenth century
[Caert-Thresoor 6(1987) 4, pp. 68-75]
Little attention has hitherto been paid to the role played by placenames in historical cartography. This is in spite of the fact that
names cannot only throw light on the sources employed
by the cartographer but they can also reveal whether or not there is a
relationship between the charts being studied.
Conversely, the charts have often had an influence on the illustrated by the way in which the litoral toponyms of Scandinavia have been treated by the earliest nautical cartographers in Holland. By the term 'litoral toponyms' is understood names of localities along the coast of in the sea off the coast.
Information about the coasts of Scandinavia was for centuries transmitted by word of mouth alone. It was not until the beginning of the sixteenth century that the earliest printed nautical charts began to appear. It would seem that there was a certain reluctance among seamen to make use of such charts. In addition, the earliest rutters would only seem to have described sailing routes along the coasts of southern Scandinavia. In the course of the sixteenth century, however, the whole of the coastline was charted.
It is revealed not only by their descriptions but also by the forms taken by the names that cartographers such as Cornelis Anthonisz, Goeyvaert Willemsen van Hollesloot, Adriaen Gerritsz and Lucas Jansz Waghenaer must themselves have travelled to Scandinavia to get hold of the relevant information. It can also be seen that the anonymous seamen who were their informants must sometimes have known more than one name for the individual localities. On the basis of the presence of certain dialect features, it has also been possible to determine that some of the name-forms have been transmitted by Dutch name-users rather than by, for example, Low German ones. The Dutch seamen often adapted the Scandinavian names to name-types that were familiar to them from the coast of their homeland. By means of an analysis of such adaptations it has sometimes been possible to locate so-called lost toponyms. It can also be seen from the oldest nautical charts that the Dutch seamen have also themselves created some names in Scandinavia. Among the most well-known examples of this are Skagerrak and Kattegat. (back)