Tijdschrift voor de geschiedenis van de kartografie in Nederland
During the 19th century many important changes in the waterways and polder areas were effected in the Netherlands. The
management of the Waal and Rhine rivers was a matter of great
concern because of the many inundations, as a result of frequent high water levels during the wintertime and obstructions
coused by the accumulation of ice floes in these rivers. About
1870 a survey of all the dikes of both the Waal and the Rhine
rivers was carried out. At intervals of 100 meters, the height of
the dikes and their width at the top were measured. The results
of these measurements, together with other important details
were to be published in a register.
The chief engineer of the Waterstaat of Gelderland, L.A. Reuvens, produced a serie of 38 maps, containing the official results of this survey, at his own expense. His cartographical sources were the general river map (scale 1: 10. 000) which was published over a period of 28 years (1830-1858) and more recent data provided by the authorities of the adjacent polders. The production of this map had been an expensive project. The Provincial States of Gelderland therefore agreed to include the maps in the Register. Both were issued as an official report. The first edition of the'de Waal- en Rijndijken der polderdistricten in Gelderland', together with the Register was published in 1871, in an edition of 140 copies. The second edition of 95 copies appeared soon after in 1872.
The 38 separate leaves, 35 x 46 cm, scale 1:10.000 were bound in an atlas. The lithography in black and blue-green was by A.A.J. Pistoor. In 1874, in cooperation with the Provincial States of North Brabant, a similar map consisting of 23 leaves of the dikes of the Maas river appeared.
The author elucidates the preceding history of this hitherto little known map (no parts of which have been published to date), giving some details of the map. Two leaves of the map are compared with the corresponding leaves of the first and second edition of the general river map.
Appearing between the first and second editions of the general river map, published between 1830-1858 and about 1880 respectively, the map of Reuvens, though executed in a rather simple form, provides some important topographical and historical information (back)
Map of the Province of Drenthe 1840 by Werneke and Brauns
[Caert-Thresoor 5(1986) 2, pp. 21-25]
Between 1835 en 1860, a general map of each province was
made based on ordnance survey maps. The publication of a
map of Drenthe on scale 1:50.000 in four sheets probably finds
its reasons in the provincial government's lack of a reliable
large-scale map to be used for development planning. The
map's maker, A. Werneke Cz., started work in 1837, not without initial difficulties as he came to grips with central government authorities over the use of ordnance survey maps and not
having executed a secundary triangulation to ensure the map's
accuracy. The reports on these diffuculties shows us the way
Werneke worked and particulars of the map.
The sheets drawn by J.C. Brauns were ready in 1839 (first and second), 1840 (third) en 1841 (fourth), after which they were engraved on copper plates by Van Baarsel & Tuyn of Amsterdam. Those engravers were in no hurry at all, as the dates of arrival of the proof sheets demonstrate. The sheets printed by Wed. A. Koning & J.F. Brugman of Amsterdam became available in 1840 (first), 1841 (second) and 1843 (third and fourth). The total run counted 125 copies, of which approx. 90 were presented by the provincial government to various individuals and government authorities in order to bring Drenthe to their attention. The year in which the seperate sheets were printed is important for a judgement of the map's reliability. Data were added to the map to the last moment, in particular to the fourth sheet.
The article is concluded by a list of the costs involved in drawing and publishing the map. (back)
The map of the Province of Zuid-Holland of 1846 (rev. 1867)
[Caert-Thresoor 5(1986) 2, pp. 26-32]
In the beginning of the 19th century, there was a growing need
for a comprehensive map of the Netherlands. Despite intensive
military surveying, no such map was available. In 1839, the Minister of the Interior encouraged the publication of separate
maps of all the provinces, based on the original cadastral plans.
These had been drawn from the cadastral surveys between
1812 and 1831.
The first edition, designed by I.A. Margadant and A.C. Nunnink appeared in 1846. The lithography was by J.M. Huart. The scale of the 9 sheets (71 x 53 cm) is 1:50,000.
Because of the many changes in polders (some 640 of them were checked), in coastal lines and of new railways a revision of the map became necessary. The Chief Engineer of the 'Waterstaat' made use of a copy of the first edition to indicate the many changes and corrections which were needed for the revision of the map. In addition the more complicated areas were redrawn on a series of 18 manuscript drawings, indicated A-T. The second edition of this map appeared in 1867. The lithographer J. Smulders had to make use of the original stones after having rubbed out the areas to be corrected. The author, in describing these two editions studied the same copy as used by the Chief Engineer for the preparation of the second edition (private collection). Two of the drawings, indicated S and T, needed for the correction of the important Biesbosch area, belong to the collection described here. (back)
The history of the publication in 1853 of the map of the province of Noord-Holland
[Caert-Thresoor 5(1986) 2, pp. 33-39]
In the year 1839 the Provincial States of Holland have taken
the initiative for the publication of a new, modern and detailed
map of that territory. In 1840 North-Holland became a independent province. The government of the Netherlands did
stimulate the publication of provincial maps, among other
things on this condition, that the new trigonometry should be
compared with the results of the pioneer baron C.R.T. Krayenhoff, published in 1827.
Charged with the making of the map of Noord-Holland were a committee and Cornelius Groll (1782-1869), engineer and verifier of the 'kadaster' (land registry office). The project enclosed a map in 12 sheets, each 71 x 52 2/5 cm, scale 1:50.000. After consultations with the government a compromise was reached concerning the tenor of the map. In 1842 a contract was made with the engravers Van Baarsel & Tuijn; they were obliged to finish the work in 1845. After this year the work was stopped till 1851 by different causes. About the publication was spoken during a meeting of the Provincial States of Noord-Holland. There were two alternatives: to make a new map or to finish the map of Groll. To make a new map entailed a great deal of expense. So it was resolved to publish the map of Groll with some additions because of new polders, roads, etc. The abovementioned committee and Groll compared maps of other provinces; they were satisfied aboud the maps of Gelderland and Utrecht. Individual members of the Provincial States have given their comment upon the map of Noord-Holland, but nothing was done with the observations. The map was published in 1853 in 100 copies, in the following years probably some 50 more.
In his book Geschiedenis van de kortografie van Nederland prof. dr. ir. C. Koeman gives the information, that the tenor of the map of North-Holland falls far behind the tenor of the other provincial maps. It is evident, that the conclusion of Koeman is correct. (back)
Peter Mekenkamp & Olev Koop
Computer-alded accuracy analysis
[Caert-Thresoor 5(1986) 3, pp. 45-52]
In studying old maps one item of importance has - in one way -
been neglected: the accuracy.
Main reason is the fact, that a suitable method for determining accuracy-values for old maps is not available.
A logic step in deriving inaccuracy-qualities is to compare map- distances with corresponding real distances on the earth-surface. Position-inaccuracy of two points is determined by the difference that can be found in this comparison. A second step can be the beginning of a new method. Considering the position of three points, it is evident that the position-inaccuracy of each point is determined by two difference-values. To compare all possible distances between points that have been chosen on an old map, one needs a computer. First of all it is necessary to create a database of geographical coordinates which will be the basis for comparising. Identical points on the map are digitized to create a parallel database. From these databases the computer calculates two distance- tables.
The result of all "difference-calculations" leads to a set of so- called "point inaccuracy values". These values can be regarded as displacements of individual sites and can be visualised by circles, using standard factors when calculating the radius. To employ this "circle method" two Jacob van Deventer maps (1542-1545) have been researched.
Jacob van Deventer has probably been one of the first to practice the "triangulation-method" in land-surveying. This presumation can certainly be confirmed after looking at the results of this accuracy-analysis. Conclusions can be made, that the circle-method might be regarded as a new method with many possibilities in interpreting the metric side of history in cartography.
Untill now only the framework of the method is ready. New development can be based upon this concept. (back)
Maps of the Frisian Wadden Islands, ca. 1540-1860: The development of the accuracy
[Caert-Thresoor 5(1986) 4, pp. 65-71]
Although each one of the four Frisian Wadden Islands can be
considered as unique, there are several common characteristics
wich justify a collective study. The vital question relates to the
planimetric and topographical accuracy. The sources used for
the present study are threefold, namely: sailing directions (coast
pilots), charts and maps. Only those maps giving a complete pic-
ture of one or more of the Wadden Islands and being chronometric accurate are taken into account.
BLooking back on a good threehundred years of old maps of the
Frisian Wadden Islands some conclusions can be made. The first
time in the history of cartography one can speak of reasonably
reliable mapping concerns the provincemaps of Jacob van Deventer. His maps of Holland (1542) and Friesland (1545) offer a
picture of the islands that, up to 1790, only can be supplemented by a few manuscript maps.
The development of the accuracy of early maps of the Frisian Wadden Islands does not keep up with that of the mainland of Friesland. We may understand this difference if we take into consideration that no single supra-local interest was served with a precise representation. The maritime and terrestrial cartography each went their own way. In general we may say that, up to the 19th century, the picture of the Frisian Wadden Islands on charts was less accurate than on maps.
It is not till the beginning of the 19th century that we may speak of actual progress. With the appearance of the first printed detailed maps of the four islands (between 1802 and 1809) the topographical accuracy reaches a higher level. After the execution of the first triangulation of The Netherlands by Krayenhoff (1802- 1811) this picture could be compieted with greater planimetric accuracy.
Both types of accuracy culminate about 1860. Regarding the isles of Ameland and Schiermonnikoog this assertion becomes reality in 1859 by consequence of the survey of these two islands by Eekhoff . The isles of Vlieland and Terscheiling did follow some years later when the first edition of the Topographic and Military Map (map sheets nr. 1, 2, 4 and 5) was issued in 1861-62. (back)